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Full text of "The Common school almanac"

THE 

COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 

EMBRACING EDUCATION STATISTICS, MAXIMS, ANECDOTES, &C. &C. 

1630. 




MODEL SCHOOL HOUSE. 




PUBLISHED BY 
THE AMERICAN COMMON SCHOOL SOCIETY. 

DEPOSITORY : 128 FULTON STREET, N. Y. 
J. OKVILLE TAYLOR. SecbbtahV. 



ECLIPSES. 

This year there will be but two Eclipses ; which is the least number that ca? 
possibly happen. Both will be of the Sun, and both invisible here and through 
c ut the United States. 

I. There will be an Eclipse of the Sun on the 15th of March, at 9h. 18m. in 
the morning, invisible. Moon's lat 2' 57" south ascending. 

This Eclipse will be central and lotal on the meridian in lat. 5°' 25' 15 
south, and long. 30. 29* west from Gieenwich. Here total darkness will con 
tinue 5 minutes. The central Eclipse will commence in the Pacific Ocean 
pass through the interior parts of South America, cross the Atlantic, and visi 
the central legions of Africa, directing its course towards the Red Sea, and wil 
finally leave the earth at a point not far from Egypt. At Constantinople th 
greatest obsauration will be 6. 5 digits. At Jerusalem the Sun will set abou 
i. 5 digits eclipsed, with the obscurity increasing. 

II. There will be an Eclipse of the Sun- on the 7th of September, at 5h 
27m. in the afternoon, invisible. Moon's lat. 6' 46" north descending. 

This Eclipse will be central on the meridian in lat. 14° 2' north, and long 
154° 42' west from Greenwich. The central Eclipse (which will be annular 
will commence near the Gulf of Corea, or the Japan Islands, and traverse th 
vast Pacific in a south-eastern direction, leaving the Sandwich Islands on th' 
left hand, and the Marqm fas on the right, and terminating in the same Ocea 
towards the coast of South America. 



A Common Excuse* 

When I have asked individuals to make some personal effort for the improve 
wient of Common Schools, it has not unfrt qucntly been said, — 

"Why do you take up this subject ? Have we not a large school fund, an 
an excellent school system ? This business belongs to the government, not t( 
individuals.'' 

By such remarks, they have always reminded me of the boy, who was ill 
dentured in the old-fashioned way: to work nine months in the year, and re- 
ceive an education the remaining three monihs. But the boy could never be 
induced to attend the school, and the neighbors said to him, 41 W by do you 
»ol go to school as other boys do ? " To w hich, the boy observed : " My m 
ter has agreed, in the denture, to give me an education, and he is bound t 
it : and I am not going to the school house arter it." 

Now, some of us seem to think that the school fund and the school law 
bound to give us an education," and we are not to make any effort oursel 
for it. 

But a school law is not education — a school fund is not education. Indi 
dual sacrifice and effort is the price of knowledge ; and, relying upon any 
else, prevents the school law and the school fund from aiding us. 



The "American Common School Society" have furnished rooms in 
building, 128 Fulton-street, with improved School Books, Apparatus, Scl 
Laws, from this and foreign countries, School Reports, Drawing Cat 
Diagiams, &c. &c, and reepcctfully invite such as feel an interest in thisi 
jeet, to visit this Depository of Improvements in the import xiit causo of EJ 
cation. 

J. Orville Taylor, Secretary. 



1 i Brgms on Tuesday, 31 days. 



1839. 



Third Quarter, 
New Moon, 



D, 

7 
15 



MOON'S PHASES. 

H. M. 

4 8 E. I First Quarter, 
9 58 M. Full Moon, 



D. H. M. 

22 6 23 M. 
29 10 44 M. 



4 



Maxims. 

1. As is the common school, so 
is the education of the people, 

2. It is cheaper to educate the 
infant mind, than to support the 
aged criminal. 

3 Education is the cheap de- 
fence of nations. — Burke. 

4. The soil does not produce ac- 
cording to its richness, but accord- 
ng to the intelligence that culti 

vates it. Hence, the best manure 
farmers can use, is a good schoo 
n the district. 

5. As is the teacher, so is the 
school, Cousin ; and as is the pay, 
so is the teacher. 

6 The Common School is the 
People's College. 

7. Uneducated mind is educated 
vice. — Beecher. 

8. Taxes, for the support 
schools, are like vapors, which rise 
only to descend again to beautify 
and fertilize the earth. 

9. Before the Press, the maxim, 
-•' Let me make tl e ballads of a 

nation, and I care not who makes 
_ the laws,'' — was true in part ;bjut 
since the establishment of the press and common schools, this maxim has more 
truth in it: — '* Let me make the school books of a nation, and I care not who 
makes the laws." 

10. A maximum, of improvement can bo obtained only by a minimum of 
punishment. — Dr. Bell. 

11. A demagogue would like a people half educated — enough to read what 
he says, but not enough to know whether it is true or not. 

12. In female education, we aim more at the gilding than the gold — the 
ornament than the acquirement. — Dr. James Johnson. 

13. Every school house that is built — every child that is educated — arc new 
and additional pledges of our perpetuity. 

14. Common Schools should go before political rights. 

15. No price is enormous which is not out of proportion to the thing pur* 
chased. The elevation of an entire people, by education, is beyond all price > 
— Simpson. 

A Patriot is known by the interest he takes in Common Schools. 



r 

D. 
mc 


Days 
Week 




SUN 
" 


L of h 

Days. 


SUN 
slow. 


Moon 
South. 


— > 
Moon 
Riees. 


1 


Tue 


7 25 1 43 




9 11 




3 42 


I HI 12 


6a 23 


£ 


Wed 


7 25 4 41 


9 13 


4 11 


2 5 


7 32 


3 


Thu 


7 25 4 45 


9 15 


4 39 


2 53 


8 40 


4 


Frid 


7 25|4 45 


9 lu 


5 7 


3 37 


9 41 


5 


Sat 


7 25 4 4€ 


9 18 


5 34 


4 18 


10 41 


6 


8 


7 25 4 47 


9 20 


6 1 


4 57 


11 40 


7 


Mon 


7 25 4 48 


9 22 


6 27 


5 36 


morn 


8 


Tue 


7 25,4 49 


9 24 


6 53 


6 16 


40 


9 


Wed 


7 25 4 50 


9 26 


7 18 


6 58 


1 41 


io 


Tlui 


7 25.4 51 


9 28 


7 43 


7 43 


2 46 


tl 


Frid 


7 24 4 52 


9 29 


8 7 


8 30 


3 49 


12 


Sat 


7 24'4 53 


9 31 


8 30 


9 25 


4 58 


13 


S 


7 2l|4 54 


9 32 


8 53 


10 22 


6 2 


M 


Mon 


7 23 4 55 


9 34 


9 16 


11 20 


6 57 


15 


Tue 


7 23 4 56 


9 35 


9 37 


0a 19 


sets 


16 


Wed 


7 22 4 58 


9 36 


9 58 


1 15 


6a 16 


17 


Thu 


7 21 14 59 


9 38 


10 19 


2 8 


7 29 


18 


Frid 


7 21 5 0 


9 39 


10 38 


2 59 


8 45 


19 


Sat 


7 20 5 2 


9 41 


10 o7 


3 47 


9 57 


20 


S 


7 195 3 


9 42 


11 15 


4 35 


11 11 


21 


Mon 


7 19 5 4 


9 44 


11 33 


5 ii4 


morn 


32 


Tue 7 18 5 5 


9 46 


U 49 


6 15 


24 


23 


Wed 7 17;5 6 


9 48 


12 5 


7 9 


1 40 


24Thu 


7 17 5 7 


9 50 




o 5 


i 5o 


25 


Frid 


7 16 5 8 


9 52 


12 35 


9 5 


4 6 


20 


Sat 


7 15'5 9 


9 54 


12 48 


10 4 


5 15 


27 




7 145 10 


9 56 


13 1 


I 1 


6 11 


28 


Mon 


7 145 12 


9 58 


13 ll 


11 55 


6 56 


29 


Tuel 


7 13 5 13 


10 0 


L3 24 


morn 


rises 


30 


Wed 7 12 5 14 10 2 


13 34 


45 


6a 21 


31 


Tliu|7 115 I6|l0 4 


13 44 


1 30 


7 28 



. FEBRUARY. Begins on Friday, 28 days. 



1S39. 





MOON'S PHASES. 










i) . 


H . M • 


Third Quarter, 


6 1 45 E. 1 First Quarter, 


20 


2 56 IS. 


New Moon, 


13 10 24 M. 1 Full Moon, 


23 


3 38 M. 



It. 

















— N 


0. 

WIO ( 




tSUN 


L'pth 


SDN 


Moon 


Moon 


Da^s 


rises <& 


sets. 












Week 




Days- 






- 


— 
1 


Frid 


7 10 


5 18 




10 5 


13 53 


- 

2m 13 


8 30 


2 


Sat 


7 9 


5 19 


10 7 


14 1 


2 53 


6 30 


3 


S 


7 e 


5 20 


10 10 


14 8 


3 32 


10 21 


4 


Mon 


7 7 


5 21 


10 12 


14 14 


4 11 


11 34 


5 


Tue 


7 6 


5 22 


10 14 


14 19 


4 52 


morn 


6 


Wed 


7 5 


5 23 


10 17 


14 24 


5 35 


32 


7 


Thu 


! 7 4 


5 25 


10 19 


14 27 


6 22 


1 37 


b 


Frid' 7 3 


26 


10 22 


14 30 


7 12 


2 42 


9 


Sat 


7 2 


5 27 


10 24 


14 3i 


8 0 


3 47 


10 


S 


7 I 


5 29 


10 26 


14 33 


9 '2 


4 45 


11 


Mon 6 59 


5 30 


10 29 


14 34 


10 6 


5 39 


12 


Tue 


6 58 


5 31 


10 31 


14 33 


11 4 


6 22 


13 


Wed 6 57 


5 33 


10 34 


14 32 


11 55 


sets 


14 


Thu 6 55 


5 34 10 36 


14 30 


0 48 


6a 22 


15 


Frid 6 54 


5 35'l0 3.9 


14 28 


1 39 


7 39 


1G 


Sat 


6 52 


5 36:10 41 


14 25 


2 29 


8 55 


17 


S 


6 51 


5 37 10 44 


14 21 


3 h) 


10 13 


18 


Mon 6 50 


5 33 10 46 


14 16 


4 10 


11 30 


19 


Tue 6 49 


5 39 10 49 14 10 


5 4 


morn 


20 


Wed 6 48 


5 40 10 5l|l4 4 


6 l 


41) 


21 


Thu 


6 46 


5 4210 54' 13 58 


6 59 


1 54 


22 


Frid 6 45 


5 43 10 57|13 50 


7 58 


2 59 




Sat 


6 43 


5 4410 59 13 42 


o oo 




24 


S 


6 42 


5 46 U 2 


13 34 


9 50 


4 56 


25 


Mon 6 4C 


5 47 1 1 4 


i 13 25 


10 40 


5 34 


2C 


Tue 


6 3Jj 


5 48 U 7 


13 15 


U 26 


6 3 


27 


Wed 6 37 


5 49 1 1 10 


'13 £ 


morn 


6 30 


2fc 


IThu 6 3€ 


5 5( 


>li 12 


12 54 


S 


rises 



16. We must agitate : for educa- 
tion, like a top, will fail as soon as 
we stop whipping. 

17. Wo have not only to striko 
while the iron is hot, but we must 
make the iron hot by striking. 

18. When thought is agitated, 
truth rises. — Bulwer. 

19. One reason is worth a hun. 
dred blows. 

20. The idea should always ac 
company the word. 

21. Nothing should be committed 
to memory before it is clearly un. 
derstood. 

22. A lesson should never be as- 
signed to the young as a task. 

23. The office of a teacher is not 
to teach, but to assist the child in 
its efforts to teach itself. 

24. As is the Common School, so 
is the education of the people. 

25. Teach and habituato the pec 
pie to make right use of the facul- 
ties which God has given them, and 
then trust them fearlessly to them- 
selves. With 6ucU a guide within 
them, it little matters who may be 
over them. 



26. It is, unquestionably, a singular circumstance, that, of all problems, the 
problem of Education is that to which, by far, the smallest share of persevering 
and rigorous analysis has yet been applied. 

27. No journal is kept of the phenomena of infancy or childhood — no parent 
has yet registered, day after day, with the attention of an astronomer, who 
preparesilis Ephemerides, the marvellous developments of his child. 

28. The neglect of moral education converts physical and intellectual into 
positive evils. The pestilence of a high taught, but corrupt mind, * Mowing 
where it listeth,' scathes and blights the souls of men. It is felt for mile6 and 
years almost interminable. By the press, (the steam of the intellectual world,; 
it touches distant ages and other hemispheres. It corrupts the species in mass. 

29. One man, taught, soon becomes the teacher of twenty. 

30. From one centre, knowledge radiates in a thousand directions. 

31. Vice we learn of ourselves, but virtue and knowledge need a teacher. 

32. In an active life, the seed of wisdom is sown. But he who reflecis not, 
pever reaps — has no haivost from it — but carries Ihe burden of age withou 



a. MARCH. 



Begins on Friday, 31 days. 



1839. 





n Third Quarter, 
New Moon, 



MOON'S PHASES 

D. II . M. 

8 8 38 M. 
15 9 18 E. 



First Quarter, 
Full Moon, 



D. H. M. 

22 0 34 M. 
29 9 31 B. 



D. 

mo 


Dava 
of the 


SUN 
rise9&sets- 


L'gth 

of 
l>ajs. 


MUN 
slow. 


Moon 
South. 


Moon 
Rises. 




1 


Frid 


6 


3.") 


5 


50 


11 


15 


12 


42 


0m50 


7a 19 


2 


Sat 


0 


34 


5 


51 


11 


18 


12 


30 


1 29 


8 20 


3 


§ 


6 


32 


5 


52 


11 


20 


1-2 


18 


2 8 


9 19 


4 


Mon 


G 


31 


5 


54 


11 


23 


12 


5 


2 49 


10 21 


S 


Tue 


6 


29 


5 


55 


11 


26 


11 


52 


3 31 


11 25 


6 


Wed 


6 


28 


5 


5G 


11 28 


11 


33 


4 15 


morn 


7 


Tim 


6 


26 


> 


57 


11 


31 


11 


22 


5 3 


29 


s 


Frid 


6 


25 


5 


59 


11 


34 


11 


9 


5 55 


1 32 


9 


Sat 


15 


23 


6 


0 


11 


37 


10 


53 


6 50 


2 34 


10 


S 


6 


21 


G 


1 


11 


39 


10 


38 


7 46 


3 21 


11 


Mon 


6 


19 


6 


2 


11 


42 


10 


22 


8 43 


4 11. 


12 


Tuc 


6 


17 


6 


3 


11 


45 


10 


G 


9 39 


4 50 


13 


Wed 


G 


15 


6 


I 


11 


47 


9 


49 


10 32 


5 23 


14 


Tim 


6 


14 


6 


5 


11 


50 


9 


33 


11 24 


5 49 


15 


Frid 


6 


136 


6 


11 


53 


9 


16 


0a 16 


•sets | 


16 


Sat 


6 


11 


6 


7 


11 


56 


8 


58 


1 7 


7a 48, 


17 


S 


6 


10 


G 


8 


11 


58 


8 


41 


1 59 


9 8, 


18 


Mori 


6 


8 


6 


9 


12 


1 


8 


23 


2 54 


10 29 


19 


Tue 


6 


6 


G 


in 


12 


4 


8 


5 


3 52 


11 45 ( 


20 


Wed 


6 


4 


6 


11 


12 


7 


7 


47 


4 52 


morn 


21 


Thu 


6 


3 


G 


13 


12 


9 


7 


29 


5 52 


i o] 


22 


Frid 


6 




G 


14 


12 


12 


7 


11 


6 51 


2 4 


23 


S it 


6 


0 


6 


15 


12 


15 


6 


52 


7 4r» 


2 DO 


24 


s 


5 


59 


6 


16 


12 


18 


6 


34 


8 37 


3 36 


25 


Mon 


5 


57 


6 


17 


12 21 


6 


15 


9 24 


4 8 


26 


Toe 


5 


55 


(5 


18 


12 23 


5 


57 


10 8 


4 34 


27 


Wed 


5 


54 


6 


19 


12 26 


5 


39 


10 49 


4 57 


28 


Tim 


5 


53 


6 


20 


12 28 


5 


20 


11 28 


5 16 


29 


Frid 


6 


51 


6 


21 


12 31 


5 


2 


2=" 


rises 


30 


Sat 


5 


4G 


G 


22 


12 34 


4 


43 


0 7 


7i 11 


31 


S 


5 


47 


G 


23 


12 36 


4 


25 


0 47 


8 12 



the wages of experience; nor known 
himself old but from infirmities, 
the parish register, and the con, 
tempt of mankind. — Young. 

33. Wo should teach a child th<? 
way to the well, rather than carry 
it a glass of water. 

34. The teacher cannot be too 
much with his pupils, but espe- 
cially with their minds. We should 
extract education from every thing. 
To the young, especially, every 

nff around is a book. This 



other. It concentrates attention 
without labor — it increases the 
mind with the body — it communi- 
cates knowledge through the medi- 
um of amusemen*. Geography, 
Natural History, Mathematics, es. 



35. The child is educating, or 
miseducating — is moving, think- 
ing, living. We can choose, in- 
deed, whether it shall bo educated 
well, or educated ill '» but we can 
no more put knowledge, oi educa- 



tion of some kind or other, in abeyanee, than we can life, 



Libraries. 

The first Library possessed by the Greeks, was founded by Pisistratus, a 
little more than 500 years before Christ. This, probably, was the first library. 
Xerxes carried it to Persia, but it was restored to Athens by Seleucus 
Nicator. Among ancient libraries, the Alexandrian was most famous. It con- 
tained (including the royal) 700,000 volumes, the larger portion of which was 
burned when Julius Caesar besieged Alexandria, about 48 years B. C. ; but the 
lost volumes were replaced V>y a gift of Antony to Cleopatra, of the library 
of Pergamus. The Alexandrian library was finally burned and dispersed about 
the yoai 390, by fanatic christians, under the countenance of Theodosius the 
Great. 

About 70 years B. C, the first library of Rome was brought there, as spojls 
of war, by Emilus Paulas and Lucuilus. Julius and Augustus Ceesar, and the 
emperor Trajan, established extonsive libraries. Charlemagne encouaged the 



4. APRIL 



Pegins on Monday, 30 days. 



1839, 



Third Quarter, 
New Moon, 



MOON'S PHASES 

D. H. M. 

6 11 39 E. 
13 2 16 M. 



First Quarter, 
Full Moon, 



D. H. M. Tt 

20 11 57 M. 

28 2 28 E. 



mo 


Days 
of the 
week 


SUN 
rises & sets 


L'eth 

6f 
Days 


SUN 
slow. 


Moon 
South. 


Moon 
Rises. 


1 


■VI on 


5 


45 


6 


24 


12 


39 


4 


6 


Itn 28 


if a it | 


2 


Tue 


5 


43 


6 


25 


12 


42 


3 


48 


2 


12 


in in' 


3 


Wed 


5 


41 


6 


26 


12 


44 


3 


ao 


2 


r v-; 


f 1 cy.y 


4 


Thu 


5 


39 


6 


27 


12 


47 


3 


12 


3 


48 


IBO r 


£ 


Frid 


5 


37 


6 


28 


|2 


50 


2 


54 


4 


41 




C 


•Sat 


5 


35 


6 


29 


12 


52 


2 


37 


5 


36 


1 20 


7 


S 


5 


33 


6 


30 


L2 


55 


o 


19 


g 


31 




S 


Mon 


5 


3:2 


6 


31 


12 


58 


2 


2 


7 




CI AC 

2 45 


9 


Tue 


5 


30 


6 


32 


13 


0 


1 


45 


y 


1 o 


3 19 


10 


Wed 


5 


28 


G 


33 


13 


3 


1 


28 


g 


1 u 


Q AC 

6 40 


11 


Thu 


5 


27 


6 


34 


13 


5 


1 


11 


in 

• yj 




A 11 

4 11 


12 


Frid 


."> 


25 


6 


35 


i3 


8 


0 


55 


in 


O I 


A Q8 

4 do 


13 


Sat 


5 


24 


6 


3t» 


13 


11 


0 


39 


1 1 

J 1 


d° 

4. 


sets. 


14 


S 


5 


23 


6 


3? 


13 


13 


0 


23 


0 a 


3 t s 


8a 2 


15 


Mon 


5 


2i 


6 


38 


13 


16 


0 


8 


1 


35 


9 23 


16 


Tue 


5 


20 


6 


39 


13 


18 


last 7 


2 


37 


10 41 


17 


Wed 


5 


18 


6 


40 


13 


21 


0 


22 


3 


39 


11 51 


IS 


Thu 


5 


16 


6 


41 


13 


23 


0 


36 


4 


41 


morn 


19 


Frid 


5 


15 


6 


42 


13 


26 


0 


50 


5 


4(1 


0 51 


20 


Sat 


5 


13 


6 


43 


13 


28 


1 


3 


6 


33 


1 3o 


21 


S 


5 


12 


6 


45 


13 


31 


1 


16 


7 


22 


•2 10 


22 


Mon 


5 


10 


6 


46 


13 


33 


1 


29 


8 


7 


2 36 


23 


Tue 


5 


96 


47 


13 


36 


1 


41 


8 


48 


3 2 


24 


Wed 


5 


8 


6 


48 


13 


38 


1 


52 


9 


28 


3 22 


25 


Thu 


5 


6 


6 


49 


13 


41 


2 


4 


10 


7 


3 42 


96 


Frid 


5 


5 


6 


50 


13 


43 


2 


14 


10 


46 


4 0 


27 


Sat 


5 


4 


6 


51 


13 


46 


2 


24 


11 


27 


4 19 


28 


S 


5 


2 


6 


52 


13 


48 


2 


34 


morn 


rises 


29 


Mon 


5 


1 


6 


53 


!3 


51 


2 


43 


0 


10 


cia 10 


30 


Tue 


5 


0 


6 


54 


13 


53 


2 


52 


0 


56 


M 14 



founding of libraries in the latler 
part of the 8th century. 

Richard Aungcrville was very 
zealous in the establishment of li- 
braries in England before the inven- 
tion of printing. Now, the differ- 
ent public libraries of Paris contain 
1,200,000 volumes of books, in 
print and manuscript. The 273 
provincial libraries of France, con- 
tain 3,000,000 of volumes, which 
are easily accessible to natives and 
foreign ers. 

The cities of Munich, St. Peters., 
burgh, Vienna, Gottingen, Dresden, 
Copenhagen, Berlin, Prague, and 
Stuttgard, have very extensive li- 
braries, embracing, in the whole, as 
nearly ts can be ascertained,2,600,- 
000 books and manuscripts. 
The Vatican library, at Rome, has 
360,000 books and 40,0^0 MSS n 
which, unfortunately, are much 
disordered. 

The other cities of Italy have li- 
braries to the amount of 700,000 
books and MSS. The largest two 
libraries in England, are the B»d- 
leiau, at Oxford, cc nsisting of from 
library of the 



250,000 to 500,000 volumes, and 30,000 MSS., and the 
Briti h museum, containing 180,000 books and 60,000 MSS. 

In the United States, Harvard college has 36,000 volumes ; the Boston 
Athenaeum. 26,000 ; the Philadelphia library, 27,000 ; the library of Congress, 
16,000 ; the city of Charleston, 13,000. 



Genius, — its triumphs. — Men of natural talent and perseverance, (the latter 
is an essential component, that is, of genius,) have always been found supe- 
rior to unfortunate circumstances, and apparently insurmountable obstacles. 
— Dr. Franklin arose from the son of a chandler and a printer's boy, to 
competency and the most enviable fame. Sir Richard Arkwright, an inventor 
of the Spinning Jenny, was once a poor barber. Arnold, an astronomer of 
the 17th century, the discoverer of two comets, and noted as an observer of the 
transit of Mercury, was a peasant near Leipsic. Aurelian, the talented, wise, 
and good emperor of Rome, was the son of a peasant. Bentley, the celebrated 
English scholar, was the son of a blacksmith. Bloomfield, the English poet, 



5. MAY. 



Begins on Wednesday, 31 days. 



1830. 



Third Quarter, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. 

6 10 47 JM. | First Quarter, 



New Moon, 




13 2 16 M. 


1 Full 




t 


















i) 


Days 




SUN 






SUN 


JHoon 


Moon 


mo 


of Hie 


rises 


j£ sets. 




fast. 




Rises. 





week 










Days. 






1 


Wed 


1 


59 


6 


oo 




13 55 


- 

3 0 


lm45 


— 

10 16 


2 


Tim 


I 

4 


5> 


6 


DO 


13 58 


3 7 


2 37 


n 22 


3 


Frid 


1 


57 


6 


0 / 


14 0 


3 15 


3 31 


11 59 


4 


Sat 


1 

-A 


56 


6 


Do 


14 2 


3 21 


4 2S 


m n'ti 


5 




1 

l 


55 


6 


OJ 


1 4 5 


3 27 


5 1.) 


0 44 


6 


M Ml 


4 


54 7 


U 


14 7 


3 32 


6 11 


1 20 


7 


Tlij 


i 
I 


537 


1 


14 9 


3 37 


7 3 


1 51) 


8 


Wed 


i 

i 


52 7 


2 


14 11 


3 42 


7 50 


2 14 


9 


Ttiu 


i 
t 


5L 


7 


Q 
O 


14 13 


3 46 


8 33 


2 3J 


10 


Frid 


A 
4 


50 


7 


1 

4 


14 15 


3 49 


9 23 


3 0 


1 1 


Sat 


4 


49 


7 


5 


14 18 


3 51 


10 2 ( 


3 26 


12 




i 

t 


48 


7 


O 


14 20 


3 53 11 16 


3 55 


13 


Won 


i 


47 


7 


i 


14 22 


3 55 


a 16 


sets. 


14 


T ie 


A 
i 


46 


7 


Q 


14 24 


3 56 


1 19 


9i3) 


15 


Wed 


4 


4» 


7 


J 


14 26 


3 56 


2 23 10 36 


1 6 


rim 




41 


7 


lu 


14 23 


3 56 


3 26;ll 23 


17 


Frid 


4 


43 


7 


1 L 


14 31 


3 5> 


4 24 


m >rn 


18 


Sat 


4 

4 


42 


7 




14 31 


3 51 


5 16 


0 6 


19 


$ 


4 


4L 


7 


Id 


14 33 


3 52 


6 3 


0 40 


20 


VI on 


A 

4 


40 


7 


1 4 


14 35 


3 49 


6 48 


1 6 


21 


Tue 


± 


39 


7 




14 37 


3 43 


7 27 


1 29 


22 


Wed 


I 


33 


7 


15 


14 38 


3 42 


8 6 


1 47 


23 


Tnu 


4 


37 


7 


16 


14 40 


3 38 


8 45 


2 6 


24 


Frid 


4 


36 


7 


17 


14 41 


3 33 


9 26 


2 25 


25 


Sat 


4 


36 


7 


18 


14 43 


3 28 


10 8 


2 45 


26 


S 


4 


n 


7 


19 


U 45 


3 22 10 53 


3 9 


27 


VI on 


4 


33 


7 


2 J 


i4 46 


3 16 


11 41 


3 37 


28 


Tud 


4 


33 


7 


21 


14 47 


3 9 


morn 


ri.se s 


29 


Wed 


4 


32 


7 


2-2 


14 4.) 


3 2 


32 


9a 7 


30 


rim 


4 


31 


7 


2:2 


14 50 


2 54 


I 2 i 


10 0 


31 


Frid 


4 


3i 


1 


23 


14 51 


i 46 


l 2 21 


10 44 



D. H. M. 

20 1 30 M. 

28 5 49 IYI. 



was the son of a tailor, an appren- 
tice to a shoemaker, and a " gradu- 
ato" of the village school. Bourdon, 
the celebrated French painter, on- 
listed as a common soldier in the 
irmy. John Calvin the reformer, 
was the son of a cooper. Tne diffi- 
culties overcome by Columbus^ 
would have crushed one of less per- 
severance an 1 ability. T.ns, more 
than any thing else, provjs the 
greatness of his mind. C",iemity, 
a protestant theologian of the 16th 
century, distinguished for his ta- 
lents and profound knowledge, was 
of >bscure origin. Diocletian, the 
emperor and great general, was of 
mean extraction, a native of Dal- 
matia. Sir Francis Drake, the no- 
ted navigator, was once a common 
sailor in a coasting vessel. Da. 
rnont, the great statesman of 
France, had to contend from his 
youth with the greatest adversities. 
Hundreds of names might be ad- 
led to the list. 

America was discovered by Chris- 
opher Columbus, Oct. llth, 1492. 
The continent, however, was, not discovered till several years afterwards, by 
John & Sebastian Cabot. It is now proved that America was kn nvn to people 
in the North of Europe, hundreds of years before. This does not diminish 
the merit of Columbus's discovery, as from that resulted all which is gratifying 
or desirable in the present condition of the western world. 

Circulation of this blood. — The discovery that blood circulates from the 
heart, through arteries to the utmost extremetios, until the vessels contain- 
ing it are no larger than a hair, and then returns through veins to the heart 
was made by Wm. Hirvey, an English physician, about the year 1615. — 
Blood circulates very swiftlv — about 149 feet per minute. A grown person, in 
health, has from 24 to 30 pounds of blood. 

Declaration of Independence of the United States, was made July 4th, 
1776. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, and after some modifications 
by Dr. Franklin and John Adams, was adopted, with oho or two alteration 
by Congress, and signed by all the members present, except John Dickenson. 
From this time, the United States dato their existence as a nation. 



r>. JJJNE. 


Dt-gtHS on Saturday, $0 days. 










unnivi'fl phases 












D. 


ii . 


M • 


Third Qunrter, 


4 (5 41 E. 1 Firnt Quarter, 


18 


5 


4 E. 


New Moon. 


11 9 48 M. J Full Moon, 


20 


7 


.3 M. 



r 



3 
4 
5 

0 Th 



13 Tii 



Days 

.1 Ihr 



•sal 

s 

M n 

Tuc 

Wed 4 29 7 26 
4 29 7 27 
Frid |4 2.i 



Sat 
S 
Vion 

Wed 



Frid 
Sat 



Thu 
Fr.d 
•Sat 
S 



SUN 
rims & acts 



4 31 17 24 
4 30 7 24 
4 30 7 25 
4 29 7 26 



S 4 28 7 3-2 16 



Mon 
Tuo 
Wed 
Thu 
Frid 
Sat 

s 

Mon 4 30 



7 2d 
28 7 28 1 5 
1 28 7 29 15 
4 28 7 29 
28 7 30 
28 7 30 
28 7 30 
28 7 3l 
28 7 3l 



28 7 32 15 
15 
15 

4 29 7 34 15 
29<7 34 

29 7 3i 
29 7 34 

7 35 



4 29 7 33 
4 29 7 33 



Wed 4 30 7 3; 



4 31 

4 31 
4 31 



4 3 )7 35 



4 3u 7 35 



7 35 
7 35 
7 35 



1 'a 111 

of 
Day*. 



14 54 

14 55 
14 56 
14 57 
14 58 
14 59 



15 



HUN 
fust. 



Moon I Moon 
Point). Mar*. 



2 38 3m 15' 11 20 
2 29! 4 7,11 5u 



? 
2 
2 

1 49 
1 39 
1 28 
1 16 
1 5 
0 53 

0 41 
29 
17 

4 

SI. 8 
21 
34 
47 

1 0 
1 13| 
1 26 
1 39 

1 52 

2 5 
2 18 
2 3 
2 43 

2 55 

3 7 



19 4 57i|iiorii 
10 5 45' 16 
0 6 32 40 



7 20 

8 9 

9 l 
9 58 

10 59 
Da 



1 3 
1 26 

1 52 

2 24 

3 4 



3| sets. 
7,9 a 15 



2 1010 2 

3 5:10 38; 

3 55. ! ll 6 

4 4l!ll 3l! 

5 23 ( ll 48 : 

6 3,inorn 



6 43 



[Ibnrt Hudson, the distinguished 
English navigator, discovered the 
Hudson river in 1609. Two years 
aftorwards, a mutinous crew put 
himself, his son, and seven others, 
into a slight boat, ui d net them 
adrift at Hie west end of findfon*i 
siraitp. Nothing Una sinco been 
heard of Henry Hudson. 

Inventions. — The lightning rod, 
hy Franklin, in 1752. Tho spinning 
jenny was originally invented by 
James Hargrave, in 1755. The 
telescope, by Galileo, about 1590. 
Spinning-wheels were invented in 
Germany in 1530. Gunpowder, in- 
vented in 1330, by a monk of Co. 
logn*. Logarithms, invented 1614, 
hy Napier, a Scotchman. 

Jknner, Edward an English phy- 
sician, and the inventor of vacci- 
nation, or the innoculation of the 
cow. pox, for the prevention of 
small pox, in 1780. 

Memory. Nothing excites great- 
or wonder than the feats of memory, 
known to have been performed by 
some extraordinary persons. Se- 
neca mentions a mm, who, after 
hearing a poem road for the first time, claimod it na his own ; and to sub- 
stantiate bis claim, repeated the whole of it, which the author could >>ot do. — 
Themistocles. it is said, could name all the citizens of Athens, twenty 
thousand in number ; and Cyrus could tell the name of every soldier in hie 
army. Dr. Lnyden could repeat a long act of Parliament, or any thing 
similar, having read it but once. Colonel Crockett's political adversary, care, 
fully wrote out a long speech, and delivered it at several political meetings, 
in the hearing of Crockett, but always speaking fiist. At one gathering, 
Crockett obtained leave to speak first, and greatly was the other candidate 
astonished to hoar his own speech repeated, u verbatim et literatim," with 
the exception of a few altciations to suit circumstances ! 

Newspapers originated in Italy, about 1563. Tho first English newspaper 
was published in 1588, during Elizabeth's reign, nnd called "The English Mer- 
curic" The first regular German newspaper, was printed in 1612. The 
American colonics, in 1720, had but seven newspapers; now there arc, 
iii the V. States, about 1400. Great Britain has about 500 periodicals ; 



10 26 

11 19 
morn 



10 
29 
49^ 
1 12! 

1 38 

2 10 
2 50' 

rises. 



158a 41 

1 10 9 21 

2 4 9 53 
2 54 10 20 



7. JULY, 



TV^inson Month v. 31 'lavs. 



1 



Third Quarter, 
Now Moon, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. 

4 10 19 VT. 
10 6 6 E 



F rst Quarter, 
Full Moon, 



D. 

18 

26 



H. M. 

10 4 

0 29 



Hays 
ol l'i 
week. 



SUN 
rises & sets. 



L :t" 

Days. 



4 3l]7 35 IS 



Tuc 4 32|7 35 15 
S| Wed 4 32 7 35,15 
4'Tliu 4 33 7 34 15 



5 Frid 

6 Sit 

7 § 

8 Mon 



4 337 3 4 15 
4 31 7 34.14 59 1 
4 35 7 34 14 58 
4 35 7 33,14 57 
9 Tue 4 36.7 33 14 56 
W Wed4 37 7 33 14 55 
JllThu 4 38 7 3i|L4 5l 
39 7 3-2 14 52 



12 Frid 
13'Sat 



§ 

Mon 
16 Tue 
171 Wed 

18 Tim 

19 Frid 
20.Sat 
21 S 
22| VI on 
23,Tue 
24lWud 
25Thu 
26 Fr d 



31 



Sat 
Mon 



30 Tuc 



W.-d 



33 7 31 14 51 
40 7 31 



41 7 30 

42 7 31 
43.7 29 
44 7 28 
417 27 



14 50 
14 48 
14 47 
r4 45 
14 44 
14 42 



45 7 27,14 44 

46 7 26|14 41 
4 47 7 25 14 39 



48|7 24 14 37 
49,7 23 14 3!5 



49 7 22 

50 .7 22 



53 7 29 



14 34 
14 32 
14 30 
14 29 
14 27 
14 25 
14 23 



Swi-den and Norway, 85 ; Denmark , 
80 ; Prussia, 300 ; Netherlands, 160; 
France, 500 ; R >me 3; In Egypt, 
by authoiity of Mohammed Ah, I ; 
the Clu roUcu Indians have one at 
New Echota. 

Oxygen Gas was discovered by 
Priestly, in 1774. It forms eiv - 
fifth, in volume, of the air wo 
breathe, and on^.lhird, in volum 
of water. If air contained no ox. 
ygen, animal life could not be sup- 
ported. 

Steamboats. — Mr. Fitch of Con- 
necticut, first attempted to eo.Y- 
siruet a steamboat, which was in 
the year 1783. In 1793, the fiitet 
successful steamboat was propelled 
four miles an hour in the rivrr 
Thames, (Eng.) It was built by 
Fitch. About 1793, John StdveiN 
propelled boats by steam, 5 to G 
miles per hour. Robert Fulton 
hunched a steamboat on the Seinr, 
(France) in 1803, which performed 
lour miles per hour. In the sum- 
mer of 1807, Fuhon launched a 
_ t boat on the Hudson, which was 
entirely successful. A few days later, the Stevens' had a boat ready, but as 
Fulton and Livingston had the exclusive right to navigate the Hudson, the 
Stevens' boat was sent to the Delaware, being the first boat that navigat.d 
tho ocean. In 1815, Fulton's boats made the first passage from New York to 
Provid-nce. The "Savannah" went from New York to Russia, in 1817. In 
1818, the first dteam.ship went from New York to New Orleans. In 1825, 
the " Enterprise" went from London to Calcutta. 

Washington, George was born Feb. 221, 1732. In 1751, became an adju. 
tant. general of Virginia; soon after, was sent by Gov. Dinwiddie on a peri- 
lous mission to the French posts in the West. Distinguished himself in tho 
defence of Fort Necessity against tho French, having, at that time, the com- 
mand of a regiment. Was an aid-de-camp of Braddock in tho expedition of 
1775. From thence, till 1759, was engaged in protecting the frontier from 
French incursions. Was chosen member of tho first Congress. Appointed 
commander-in-chief in 1775. Hold the station throughout tho war ol tho Re- 
volution. Was chosen President of the Convention which framed tho Con ;ti- 
tution ; and was President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Having 



S-TJN 
slow 


Moon 
South. 


Muon 
R s> s: 




3 19 


3,n43 


10 44 


3 31 


4 30 


11 7 


3 42 


5 17 


11 30 


3 53 


6 4:11 54 


4 4 


6 54 


mom 


4 15 


7 48 


0 24 


4 25 


8 45 


0 58 


4 .4 


9 47 


1 42 


4 44 


10 50 


2 38 


4 43 11 55 


S(;ts. 


5 1 


a 50 


8 34 


5 9 


1 44 


9 5 


5 17 


2 32 


9 32 


5 24 


3 17 


9 53 


5 30 


3 58 10 13 


5 37 


4 39 10 32 


5 42 


5 18 10 52 


5 48 


5 59 11 13 


5 52 


6 42 


11 38 


5 57 


7 29 


morn 


6 0 


8 17 


0 8 


6 3 


9 10 


0 44 


6 6 


10 5 


1 29 


6 8 


11 0 


2 24 


6 9 


11 55 


3 29 


6 10 


morn 


rises. 


6 10 


0 49 


8 22 


6 10 


1 39 


8 42 


6 9 


2 27 


9 11 


6 8 


3 15 


9 34 


6 5 


4 2 


9 58 



8. AUGUST. Begins cm Thursday, 31 days. 



1839 



Third Quarter, 
New Moon, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. D. H. M. 

2 4 54 M. I First Quarter, 17 3 40 M. 

9 4 23 E. Full Moon, 24 4 42 E. 



r 

D. 

mo 


Da\ S 

of the 
week. 


SUN 
rises & sets. 


L'gth 

of 

D ays. 


^UN 
slow. 


Moon 
South. 


Moon" 
Rises. 


t 

2 


1 hu 


4 56 


7 16 


1 A 01 
14 ~1 


Pi 3 

o o 


'±nt o i 


1 ft 0^ 

iU /Co 


XT'. : ,i 

r rid 


4 57 


7 15 


1/1 1 o 
14 1>) 


o oy 


O 'JtO 


1 ft ^7 
1 U 0 / 


2 


Sat 


4 58 


7 14 


1 A \n 
14 1 i 


O 00 


3Q 

o oy 


11 3ft 
11 oo 


4 




4 59 


7 13 


1 /( IK 

L4 10 


k ^n 
o ou 


/ OO 


morn 


5 




5 0 


7 ]2 


1/1 1 0 
14 1« 


O 40 


8 QQ 

o oy 


ft Oft 
U /io 


c 
0 


Tue 


5 1 


7 11 


~\ A in 
14 1U 


O 0<7 


Q Aft 

y 4u 


1 Oft 

X fC\J 


7 


We.i 


5 2 


7 10 


1/1 Q 
14 o 


o oo 


1 ft °.Q 

iu oy 


O 3Q 
/5 oy 


a 

O 


1 liu 


5 3 


7 8 


1/1 f; 
14 o 


^ o^ 

O AO 


ii °.'i 

1 1 04 


3 fiO 
O O^s 


9 


r rid 


5 4 


7 7 


1/1 - /i 
14 4 


O lo 


fto 0/1 

ua ^4 


sets. 


10 


Sat 


5 5 


7 6 


1/1 o 

14 !<J 


0 1U 


i i ft 

1 IU 


/a o / 


11 


» 


5 6 


7 5 


io oy 


O X 


X oo 


ft ifi 

O 10 


1 O 

12 


Mon 


5 7 


7 3 


too/ 


4 OX 


4 04 


ft q« 
O OO 


13 


1 ue 


5 8 


7 2 


1 KA 
l>i 04 


/l A1 
Q •iX 


3 1 zl 
O 14 


ft t;c; 

0 00 


14 


Wed 


5 9 


7 0 


1 ^o 

J.J 0,4 


A 3l 
4 Ol 


°. C./1 
O 04 


QIC: 

y lo 


15 


I nu 


5 10 


6 59 


1 o /< n 
io 4;J 


a on 

4 <su 


/I Qfi 
4 OO 


Q 9.Q 

y oy 


lb 


Frid 


5 11 


6 58 


IO 4/ 


4 ft 


^ Ol 

O /il 


in 

1U 0 


17 


O _ A. 

Sat 


5 12 


6 57 


lo 40 


O 00 


fi ft 
D O 


1 ft 

1U 61 


10 


» 


5 13 


6 55 


1 3 /IO 
to 4-i 


O 44 


*^Q 

o oy 


1 1 or 
1 1 <i0 


iy 


IVlon 


5 14 


6 54 


1 q /in 
to 4U 


O Ol 


7 f\0 

/ 0/4 


morn 


on 
aO 


Tue 


5 15 


6 53 


to oo 


O 1 ■ 


ft A7 
O 4/ 


n in 
U lu 


21 


Wed 


5 16 


6 51 


iq Or 
1 1 oo 


O O 


Q /IQ 

y 4o 


l in 
l lu 


22 


Thu 


5 17 


6 50 


1 'X QQ 

lo oo 


O /IQ 

.•s 4y 


1ft *}7 
1(1 O / 


O 1 Q 

<4 iy 


23 


Frid 


5 1816 59 


13 30 


2 34 


11 29 


3 31 


24 


Sat 


5 29 6 47 


13 23 


2 19 


morn 


rises. 


25 


S 


5 2 ■)'6 45 


13 25 


2 3 


0 19 


7a 14 


26 


Mon 


5 21 6 43 


13 23 


1 47 


1 8 


7 38 


27 


Tu- 


5 22 6 41 


13 20 


1 30 


1 57 


8 1 


28 


"Ved 


5 23 6 4i> 


13 18 


1 13 


2 47 


8 28 


29 


Thu 


5 24 6 38 


13 15 


0 £6 


3 39 


8 5;1 


30 


Frid 


5 25,6 36 


13 13 


0 38 


4 34 


9 37 


31 


Sat 


5 26(6 34 


13 10 


0 20 


5 32 


10 24 



earned the revered name oT ** Fa- 
ther of his Country," he died on 
Saturday, the 15th of December, 
1799. 



1. The Newtonian Philosophy 
was published in 1686. 

2. Homer flourished 907 years 
before Christ. 

3. Pliny, the Roman Historian, 
died in the 17th year after 
Christ- 

4. Captain Cook returned from 
his first voyage around the world 
in 1771. 

.5 The Dutch settled at Al- 
bany in 1613. 

6. The Puritans landed at 
Plymouth in 1620. 

7. The Seat of Government 
was removed to Washington in 
1800. 

8. Potatoes were taken to 
Ireland from America in 1565. 

9. The Erie Canal was com. 
menced July 4th, 1816. 



11. The New Style was introduced by Gregory 13th, in 1582. 

12. Martin Luther began the reformation in 1517. 

13. Merino sheep were first brought to the U. States in 1802. 

14. Solon, the Athenian law-giver, dud 558 years before Christ. 

15. The present translation of the Bible was first published in 1610. 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 
Virginia. 

Population, 1,211 272 

No. of children and youth, - 300,000 

No. without the means of school education, - 117,000 

No. of schools, - 2,833 
Size of the school fund, - - - - $ 1,551,857 47 

Annual revenue, 78,340 61 

Annual expenditure of this revenue, - 62,927 18 

Annual increase of thn capital fund, ... 15,41343 
Out of the annual expenditure ot 62,928 18, there isgivea to 

the common schools only ----- 45,000 00 



0. SEPTEMBER. Begins on Sunday, 30 days. 



1839. 



^ Now Moon, 
First Quarter, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. D. H. M. 

7 5 27 E. I Full Moon, 22 2 13 

15 9 2 E. Third Quarter, 29 4 47 



1 ). 

mo 


Days 
of the 
week" 


SUV 
rises <& sets. 


"7 

L'f, r th 

of 
Days. 


SUN 
fast. 


Moon 
South. 


Moon 
Rises. 


I 




5 


27 


6 33 


1 3 8 
lo 0 


u u 


um oo 


1 1 oi 

XX -51 




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5 


28 


6 32 


1 o c 
lo D 


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7 3 1 

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morn 


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1 ue 


5 


29 


6 30 


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lo O 


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5 


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6 29 


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lo u 


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u ou 


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5 


Thu 


5 


31 


6 27 


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1-5 o i 


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6 


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8 


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9 


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5 


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5 


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7 4,1 
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1,2 


Thu 


5 


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l i oy 


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5 


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l/w OO 


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14 


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5 


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4 Oil 


4 ^fl 

4: OU 


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15 


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17 


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.) 


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1/5 /iO 


5 23 


7 OQ 
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11 ^8 

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18 


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c 
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5 41 
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morn 


19 


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.3 


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6 4 


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1-5 -5 J 


6 5 


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30 


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21 


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5 


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6 1 


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i n ^fi 

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3 35 


12 


S 


5 


47 


5 59 


12 12 


7 8 


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4 50 


23 


Mon 


5 


48 


5 57 


12 10 


7 29 


morn 


rises. 


24 


Tue 


5 


49 


5 55 


L2 7 


7 49 


0 36 


6a 28 


25 


Wed 


.3 


50 


5 53 


12 4 


8 10 


1 29 


6 58 


26 


Thu 


5 


51 


5 52 


12 1 


8 30 


2 25 


7 35 


27 


Frid 


5 


52 


5 50 


tl 59 


8 51 


3 21 


8 19 


28 


Sat 


5 


53 


5 49 


11 56 


9 11 


4 26 


9 16 


29 


S 


5 


54 


5 47 


11 53 


9 30 


5 28 


10 20 


30 


Mon 


5 


55 


5 45 11 51 


9 50 


6 28 


11 29 



Quartz. -^-The most common 
and widely distributed stone. It 
has a great variety of appearances, 
all of which, however, have some 
common features by which (hey 
may easily be known. It is suf- 
ficiently hard to scratch glass. — 
Flint is a species of quartz. It 
is composed, when pure, of the 
two simples — silicon and oxygen : 
Ulloa, don Antonio, governor 
of Louisiana in 1776, when under 
the dominion of Spain. He pub- 
ished an account of his voyage 
to South America, where he re- 
mained ten years. Ferdinand 
III. appointed Ulloa to travel 
over Europe, to collect informa. 
tion concerning agriculture, sci- 
ences and the arts. He was dis. 
tinguished as a mathematician, 
an engineer, and a man of sci- 
ence ; and was elected member of 
the " Royal Society" in 1745. 

Victories of the mind over 
bodily pain, exhibit, most vividly, 
the commanding strength of in- 
tellect. Archbishop Cranmer, 
when burned at tho stake, held 



Illinois. 



Population, - ... . ^ . . 200,974 

No. between 4 and 16 years of age, not far from ... 62,000 
Size of the school fund, - §1,924 109 

This fund is now in the present state : 
Actual fund at interest, - - $108,813 

Value of seminary lands unsold, .... 400,000 
Value of sections, numbered 16, and given to create a school fund, 1,211,933 
Estimate of the 3 per cent, fund on public lands not sold in the State, 503,333 



Total, - $1,924,109 
Mississippi. 

Population, 130,806 

No, of children, 28,000 



10. OCTOBER. Begins on Tuesday, 31- days. 



1839. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



New Moon, 
First Quarter, 



D. 

7 
15 



H. M. 

9 19 M. 
1 28 E. 



Full Moon, 
Third Quarter, 



D. H. 

22 11 

29 3 



i4 M. 
4 M. 



D. Days | *>UiN i 'gth S[JN 
mo •»; tlu r ses it set». 01 fas 
tveek. Days- l . 



r.»c 

Wed 
3 Tim 
Frid 
Sat 
§ 

Man 
8 Tue 
Wed 
lOThu 
Fr«l 
Sat 



g 

12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
2$ 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 T 



VI on 

Tue 
Wed 

Tim 
Frid 
Sat 
S 
VI oti 
Tue 
Wed 
Thu 
F id 
Sat 
■S 

Mon 



Wed 



5 56 
5 57 



58 5 
59 

0 

1 

2 

35 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



o 
5 
5 
5 
10 5 



U 

12 
13 
1415 
155 
165 
175 
18'5 
19 5 
6 20 5 
6 2l|5 
6 22 5 
6 24 5 
6 25 
6 2« 
6 27 



43 11 
42 11 
41 11 
39 11 
38 11 
37 11 
35 11 
34 11 
32 11 
31 11 
29 11 
28 11 
26 11 
25 11 
23 11 
22 11 
20 11 
18 11 
17 11 
15 10 
1410 
12 10 
11 10 
1010 
810 



4810 
45' 10 
42 10 
40|ll 
3711 
3511 
3241 
29 12 
2712 
2412 
2113 
1813 
16;i3 
1313 
11 14 
814 
514 
314 
0|14 
58 15 
5515 
53 15 



Moon Moon 
S uth. Rises. 



9 7m 13 



8 16 

9 3 
9 46 

2410 28 

4211 8 

59 11 48 

16 0a 29 

33 1 12 

49 1 57 

2 45 

2 35 

4 27 

5 20 

6 12 

7 4 
7 54 



50 



15 



4815 
45 15 
4215 
40 15 
38 
35 16 



8 43 

9 31 

10 21 

11 13 
morn 

0 
1 
2 
3 



11 

15 

4 19 

5 18 

6 12 

7 1 
7 46 



8 5 



norn 

0 41 

1 50 

2 56 

4 0 

5 1 
sets. 

5 46 

6 9 

6 43 

7 13 

7 55 

8 45 

9 44 

10 50 

11 59 
morn 

1 10 

2 24 

3 38 

4 54 
r»ses. 

a 28 

6 11 

7 4 

8 8 

9 19 

10 31 

11 41 
mom 

0 49 



his right hand, (with which he 
had signed his recantation from 
Protestantism) in the flames, ex- 
claiming, repeatedly, with the 
gioatest composure — " That un- 
worthy hand." The American 
savage, though subjected to the 
most excruciating tortures bin 
captors can inflict, maintains a 
calm dignity, and sings his war- 
sung until death ends his suffer, 
ings. Before an Indian can be. 
come a "medicine man," ho vo- 
luntarily subjects himself to 
bodily pain, — hanging on 
hooks, &c, which a person in 
civilized life would think it im- 
possible to endure. 

Yankee Doodle. This tune 
was composed in 1755, by a Doc- 
tor Shackburgh, of the British 
army, to ridicule the ungainly 
appearance of the Yankee re- 
cruits. General Cornwallis, no 
doubt, thought it a serious joke, 
when, 26 years afterwards, him- 
self and his army marched into 
the American lines to the tune of 
Yankee Doodle. 
Connecticut. 

Having received the report for 1837, of the commissioner of the State 
school fund, we are enabled to give some further particulars. 
Total capital of the school fund, - - - $2 027.402 49 

Income of the school fund during the past year, - . 113,135 83 

Amount of moneys paid to schools from the State fund for the 

year ending March 21st, 1837, .... 95,862 85 

No. of children between 4 and 17 years of age, * - 83,359 

The income appropriated, gives to each child in the State, for 

the past year, precisely, - - - . „ $1 Is 



New Hampshire. 
No. of inhabitants of a fit age to attend school, 
Annual sum raised by tax for the support of schools, 
Income from a literary fund, «. 



- 64,000 
$101,000 00 
9,000 00 



11 NOVRMRFR 


IX J^llliS Oil r 1 I'My, OU UilVS. 




1831A. 




MOON b PHAbES. 








D II. M. 


D. 


II. M. 


Now Moon, 


6 3 15 JVT. 1 Full Moon, 


20 


9 15 E, 


Fir.>t Q,u rtor, 


11 4 14 M. Third Quarter, 




O 6i SLt. ' 



Zoologv — the description of 
animals, including all fuels that 
relate to their appearance, habits, 
formation, etc. Zoological Insti- 
tute— a collodion of umm ils from 
j'ivery part of the world, (i. e., as 
generally applied.) Aristotle was 
'the first wiio made this branch of 
knowledge a science. Pliny, 
Belon, Ray, Linnaeus, Buffon, 
Cuvier, and others, have made 
Zoology a most interesting part 
of Natural History. 

Knowledge. The contin- 
ued progress of knowledge, and 
its gradual extension over the 
world, afford conclusive evi- 
dence that mankind is approach- 
ing towards a state of happinest 
and perfection. Ancient nations, 
to be sure, as Athens, Greece, 
Egypt, &c, were renowned for 
their learning and science, but wo 
have no reason to conclude that 
knowledge was so universally dif- 
fused as at present. If the peo- 
ple of those nations werz general- 
ly learned, they, compared with 
i he number of enlightened na- 
tions now, would seem as nothing. Not only does the whole of Europe, and 
a great portion of America, abound in men of science, but many of the coun- 
tries on both continents have systems of schools for the complete education of 
every citizen. It must be allowed that the ancients possessed a knowledge of 
some arts and manufactures which we do not ; but the thousands of useful in- 
ventions which we have, that were unknown to them, swells thu balance in 
our favor. 



D 


Days 






UN 


M oo ii 


Moon 


mo 


vf tin 


rises mid sets 




fust. 


ijjuili 


rtises. 




week 






Days. 










1 


Frid 




4 59 


1!) 


27 


16 15 


8. .28 


- _ 

lm53 


s 


Sat 


6 3 ) 


4 58 


10 


25 


16 16 


9 8 


2 55 


3 


§ 


6 31 


4 57 


10 


23 16 17 


9 48 


3 55 


4 




6 32 


4 56 


10 


2JI16 17 


10 28 


4 56 


5 


Tue 


(5 31 


4 54 


10 


1846 16 


11 10 


5 58 


6 


A ed 


G 35 


4 53 


10 


1616 14 


11 54 


sets. 


7 


Thu 


6 37 


4 51 10 


1316 11 


O.i 41 


5a 14 


8 


Frid 


6 38 


4 50il0 


1116 7 


1 31 


5 53 


9 


Sat 


6 39 


4 49 10 


9!16 3 


2 22 


6 41 


10 


S 


6 40 


4 48' 10 


6;15 58 


3 14 


7 36 


11 


V on 


6 42 


4 47 


10 


4 15 51 


4 6 


8 38 


1:2 


Tue 1 


6 43 4 46 


10 


2 15 44 


4 57 


9 45 


13 


Wed 


6 44 


4 45 


10 


0 15 36 


5 46 


10 53 


14 


Thu 


6 46 


4 44 


9 


5815 28 


6 31 


morn 


15 


Frid 


6 47,4 43 


9 


5645 18 


7 29 


0 4 


IB 


Sat, 


6 48 4 42 


9 


5415 8 


8 8 


1 15 


1? 


S 


6 49 4 41 


9 


52!l4 56 


8 57 


2 27 


18 


Mon 


6 50 


4 40 


9 


50 '14 44 


9 49 


3 43 


19 


Tue 


6 51 


4 39 


9 


48 14 31 


10 46 


5 3 


20 


Wed 


6 53 


4 39 


9 


47 14 17 


11 48 


rises. 


21 


Thu 


6 54 


4 38 


9 


45 14 2 


mom 


4 48 


22 


Frid 


6 55 


4 37 


9 


43 13 47 


0 54 


5 47 


23 


•^at 


6 56 


4 36 


9 


41113 31 


2 0 


6 58 


24 


S 


6 57 


4 36 


9 


40 13 14 


3 4 


8 13 


25 


Mon 


6 58 


4 35 


9 


38,12 56 


4 2 


9 27 


26 


Toe 


6 59 


4 34 


9 


36 12 37 


4 55 


10 38 


21 


Wed 


7 0 


4 34 


9 


3542 18 


5 43 11 44 


28 


Thu 


7 1 


4 33, 9 


33 11 58 


6 26 


morn 


29 


Frid 


7 3 


4 33 


9 


32 


11 37 


7 7 


0 47 


30 


Sat 


7 4|4 33 


9 


39 


11 16 


7 47 


1 51 



Maine, 

Population, - 399,402 

Number of children attending school, - 137,931 

Aniual sum raised by tax for support of schools. - • $160,20 000 

No. of school districts supposed to be, - 2,741* 



See U. S. Almanac. 



12. DECEMBER, 


Begins on Sunday, 31 days. 


1839. 




MOON'S PHASES. 






D. H. M. 


D. H, M. 


New Moon, 


5 10 4. E. j Full Moon, 


20 7 47 M. 


First Quarter, 


hi 4 50. E. 1 Third Quarter, 


27 11 51 M. 



WHAT HAVE I TO DO WITH 

COMMON SCHOOLS 1 
In presenting the claims of the 
common school to individuals, it 
is not unfrcquently the case that 
language like the following will 
meet your cars : " What have I 
to do with common schools ? I 
have been to school all I ever shall 
go — I have no children, why 
should I be interested in the com- 
mon school ?" To such I would 
say — though you may no more 
attend school yourself — though 
you may not have children, yet 
common philanthropy - should 
make you interested in their sup- 
port. What! are you not inter- 
ested in your country's freedom 
and prosperity ? Care you not 
whether knowledge and intelli- 
gence, virtue and peace, spread 
through these United States ? Or, 
instead of these, that ignorance, 
and vice.and superstition prevail? 
Say not, then, you feel no inter- 
est in the common school. If 
you are a patriot— if you are a 
philanthropist, you must, you will 

feel interested in them. They are your country's safeguard— they are your 
neighbor's only barrier to ignorauce and crime. Come out, then, like a gen- 
uine patriot, and give to these schools your hearty, generous support. Upon 
them depends the nation's prosperity — without them the people must suffer all 
the ills that general ignorance is heir to. The safely of your property and life 
lies in the virtue and intelligence of those around you. 

From the best sources of information we can obtain, we have collected the 
following interesting facts : 

No. of children in the U. States, between 4 and 16, and who 

should be in school, . 
No. not in school, and who do not use the means of a common 

school education, . . - 

No. of common schools in the U. States, 
No. of teachers in these schools, .... 
Annual sum expended on these schools, 



D. 

mo 


Da s 
o I Iht- 
week. 


MJN 
rises andsets 


L'gth 

of 
Day.s. 


SUN 
fast. 


Moon 
South. 


Moon ^ 
Rises. 


1 




7 


c 
O 


< 

4 


a I 


929 


1 A 


04 


(A., 
on 




2m 49 




Mon 


7 


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4 


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ol 


9 


28 


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3 




7 


7 


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4 


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9 


27 


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4 53 


4 


Wed 


7 


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4 


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9 


25 


J 




lu 


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5 57 


5 


Thu 


7 


0 


4 


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9 


21 




Ol 1 


1 1 




sets. 


6 


Frid 


7 


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1 

4 


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9 


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4a 38 


7 


Sat 


7 


1 1 
1 1 


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4 


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9 


22 


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1 


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5 32 


8 


S 


7 




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4 


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9 


21 


Q 


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d 


6 33 


9 


Mon 


7 


1 'X 


4 


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9 


20 


7 
1 


07 


2 


54 


7 38 1 


10 




7 


14 


4 


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9 


20 


7 


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1U 


3 


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11 


Wed 


7 


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4 


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9 


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4 


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9 53 


12 


Thu 


7 


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5 


16 


11 2 


13 


Frid 


7 


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4 


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9 


18 


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40 


6 


1 




11 


Sat 


7 


1 7 
1 / 


4 


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9 


17 


c 
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ICS 


6 


4-7 


0 11 


15 


s 


7 
1 


1 7 
1 1 


4 


O 1 
O 1 


9 


17 


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4 


to 

4 J 


7 


36 


1 24 


16 


Mon 


7 
I 




4 


0 1 
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9 


16 


A 

4 


On 


8 


29 


2 35 


17 


Tue 


7 


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4 


9 1 


9 


16 


O 


DU 


9 


27 


4 0 


18 


Wed 


7 


1 J 


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4 


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9 


15 


q 
o 


01 


10 


27 


5 17 


19 


Thu 


7 


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A 

4 




9 


15 




DJL 


11 


35 


6 31 


20 


Frid 


7 


Ojj 


4 


36 


9 


15 


O 


2 i 


morn 


rises 


21 


Sat 


7 


20 


4 


36 


9 


15 


i 


51 


0 42 


5a 46 


22 


S 


7 


21 


4 


37 


9 


15 


i 


21 


1 


41 


7 3 


23 


Mon 


7 


21 


4 


37 


9 


15 


0 


51 


2 


42 


1 

8 19 


24 


Tue 


7 


22 


4 


38 


9 


15 


0 


21 


3 33 


9 29 1 


25 


Wed 


7 


22 


4 


38 


9 


15 


SI 


9 


4 20 


10 31 


26 


Thu 


7 


23 


4 


39 


9 


15 




39 


5 


3 


11 36 


27 


Frid 


7 


23 


4 


39 


9 


16 


1 


9 


5 


41 


morn 


28 


■Sat 


7 


24 


4 


40 


9 


16 


1 


3 [ J 


6 25 


0 33 


29 


S 


7 


24 


4 


40 


9 


17 


o 


8 


7 


0 


1 41 


30 


Mon 


7 


25 


4 


41 


9 


17 


2 


38 


7 48 


2 37 


31 


Tue 


7 


25 


i 


42 


9 


18 


3 


6 


8 33 


4 36 



3,500,000 

. 600,000 
80,000 
. 95,000 
#15,000,000 



15 



Tlic Teacher's Influence. 

Said the distinguished Philosopher and Statesman, De Witt Clinton : "The 
situation of a teacher, in its influence on the character and destinies of the 
rising, and all future generations, has neither been fully understood or duly 
estimated." 

We have, in the United States, not less than 95,000 Common School teach, 
ers, who arc daily educating 4,000,000 of children — each one of whom is to be 
a Citizen King. 

Who has measured the influence of these teachers ? Whatever their learning 
and character may be, they will impress their likeness upon the children. He 
is the model, the criterion of the young minds, who imitate the teacher's gait, 
looks, speech, and manners. While impressions are readily made they sym- 
pathise with his feelings, and adopt his opinions. The Common School teach- 
ers give this nation its character and education. 

Much is said of the influence of the Press, of the Clergy, and of party spirit 5 
but the influence of teachers is stronger and more lasting than all. 

But who is watching this influence ? Who measures it ? Who is striving to 
make it higher and holier? 

It is controlling more mind than the press and the pulpit — shaping the desti- 
nies of this republic every moment ; and yet, what is either learning, or reli- 
gion, or legislation, doing to enlighten or purify it ? 

Said M. De Fellenberg, while pointing to three hundred young men under 
his instruction : " These teachers are the great engine to regenerate Switzer- 
land." 

As teachers have the growing minds and hopes of the nation in their hands^ 
they are the depositories and trustees of its prosperity and happiness. The 
school master either mends what nothing can mar, or mars what nothing can 
mend. 

There is a kind of ink, which, when put on paper, is, at first, scarcely dis. 
cernible ; but in a short time it grows darker, and finally becomes so black and 
permanent, that you may burn the paper on coals of fire, and the writing will 
be seen in the cinders. Such is the influence of the teacher. It may be imper- 
ceptible at first ; but it lasts beyond the grave. 

What skilful and holy men should they be whose fearful office it is to watch 
and tune the pulses and vibrations of the soul! What a master should he be # 
who is to sweep the harp, the tones of which are to remain in the strings fur 
ever I / 

Teachers should be educated — their profession should be as distinct and 
learned as the Profession of Law, or Physic, or Divinity, and as li! erally paid 
and henored. He who educates men, and gives them character, fills a profes- 
sion the most difficult and the most responsible. 



16 



TO PARENTS. 

The right education of your children is dearer to you than any other earth, 
iy object: for ^ good education is a young man's best capital. To educate 
your children well, is to givo them a fair start in the world — it is to give them 
an equal chance for the privileges and honors of manhood. 

But, to keep them from school the most of tiie time — to furnish them with 
a miserable, useless teacher — to deny them the necessary and the raoi-t ap- 
proved school books — to be unwilling to spend a little to procure Papers and 
books for general information and reading — to do these things, or either one of 
these, is to do your children an incalculable injury. 

You wish your children to be companions of the virtuous and the intelligent 
— then make them virtuous and intelligent ; unless you do this, your children 
will be unfit for such society as you wish them to keep. You wish your off- 
spring respected and influential — morality and intellect are always respected, 
and these qualities are always influential, too. You do not wish others to 
trample upon the rights of your children — you do not wish others to lead them, 
to think for them, or to make them mere tools ; or ambitious ends, Then give 

them an education — a mind, that they may know and keep their rights tint 

they may think fuf themselves, and have the privileges of FREEMEN. Igno- 
rance is always the vassal, the slxve of intelligence. The educated man al. 
ways has had, and always will have, the advantage of ignorance; aud if you 
let your children grow up uneducated, you let them grow up to be tho tools 
and the slaves of others. You cannot do your children a greater injury than 
to letthem 6tep into manhood uneducated ; and in no other way can you do 
these free institutions a greater evil. 

You ought to put into your children's hands every thing that assists or en- 
courages them in their studies. Do not hesitate at the expense. If you can 
strengthen one moral feeling, or one intellectual faculty in your child, you are 
well paid for almost any expense. Wealth will not make your offspring great 
or happy — happiness and greatness consists in virtue and knowledge. Let the 
education of your children, then, be your first care. 

§chool Government. 

Although the secret of governing others lies in the government of ourselves, 
I have seen teachers fretful, passionate, and vindictive. They grow angry, 
and throw ferules and books at the scholars — chuck together, with a crack, 
the heads of two lads who may be stealthily enough in clo3e whispering — order 
the children to stand barefuot on peas, or to bend over with tho head on the 
floor. 

We regret to say that there is much corporeal punishment, and that it very 
seldom answers its end. 

South, in one of his sermons, thus remarks : "It is certain that, in some 
cases, and with some natures, austerity must be used ; there being, in youth, 
the man to be instructed, and the brute to be chastised. But how to do this 
discreetly, requires, in my opinion, a greater judgment than the world gener- 
ally imagines, and that, I am sure, most masters pretend to possess." Stripes 
and Wows are the last and basest remedy. Reason and persuasion should first 
be used. 



11 



Important to Children. 

? Town's Spelling Book. — Th is work should bo in every primary school in 
the nation. It comprises and accomplishes the entire object of the whole lan. 
guage, on a plan so plain and practical, that it cannot fail of universal adoption. 
Heretofore, spelling books have taught words, and not their meaning ; but this 
book gives all the primitive words of general use in the language, so arranged 
that every child understands their meaning, just as fast, and to the same extent, 
as he learns to spell. To this is appended the common prefixes and suffixes, 
which will enable the child to form, understand, and define compound and de- 
rivative words to the amount of filly or sixty thousand. All this is accorru 
plished by children of sufficient ago to use any spelling book or attend school, 
without tho least embarrassment in the progress of spelling. For sale by 

Robinson, Pratt &, Co, 63 Wall-st. N, Y. 

Town's Spelling Book has the strong approval of General Dix, Superintendent 
of Common Schools of New York, and was adopted by the leading schools of 
New York and Albany, on the day of its publication. It must make a revolu- 
tion in the study of words, and will soon become the opelling book of the En- 
glish language. J. Orville Taylor. 



District Libraries. — Says the honorable Mr. Wyse, member of the British 
Parliament : •« A reading people will soon become a thinking people, and a 
thinking people must soon become a great people.'' 

" Without books," says the quaint Bartholin, " God is silent, justice dor- 
mant, science at a stand, philosophy lame, letters dumb, and all things involved 
in Cimmerian darkness." And this is true: for the history and the wisdom of 
other men and other generations, can be ours only by reading. 

<4 Reading," says Lord Bacon, " makes a full man, and thinking a correct 
man." But what so apt to make us think, as books, which put us among the 
thinking, and give us the materials for thought. There is as much reason in- 
sending a man into the field to cut down the grass without a scythe as to expect 
a child to grow up a strong intelligent man without books. The child requires 
a good library of books as much as the merchant does his store filled with goods. 
Books are, to the young mind seeking knowledge, what capital is to the man 
of business seeking wealth. We cannot expect the children of our State to 
grow rich in knowledge, unless we give them a good capital stock to work 
with. Why should we complain of the ignorance of the people, and continue 
to withhold from them the very means of information. They cannot, in some 
instances, obtain the learned teacher ; we keep them from the light ef sci- 
ence and literature, and then blame them for not being intelligent, 



A Reason for having a School, 

How often have I heard mothers say : " I shall be so glad when school 
commences again — I can do nothing with my children at home— they worry 
my very life out of me, daily.** 

The f chool is regarded as a place of confinement till the children are able to 
work — a prison for those who cannot be governed at home, 



18 



Cheap Teachers. 

1. Many fathers there are who so love their money, and hate their children^ 
that they have teachers for their children of no worth, thereby beating down the 
market, that they may purchase a cheap ignorance. 

2. It was, therefore, a witty and handsome jeer which Aristippus bestowed 
on a sottish father, who had asked the philosopher " what he would ask to teach 
his child ?" 

3. Arist ippus answered, 11 A thousand drachmes" — whereupon the father cried 
out, " 0 Hercules ! how much out of the way you ask ! for I can buy a slave 
at that rate.'' 

4. " Do it, then" said Aristippus, » and thou shalt, instead of one, purchase two 
slaves : htm that thou buy est for one, and thy son for another. — Plutarch's Morals* 



To Parents. 

Parents, look well to your school teachers ; for the old proverb says, "that 
h3 who lives with a lame man, will learn of him to halt." 

The very spring and root of honesty and virtue, lie in a good education. 



OUR SCHOOL HOUSES. 

These humble institutions, standing upon almost every acre of our land, and 
scattering light in every direction, are the guardians of freedom and the 
strength of our country. From every one of our eighty thousand school houses 
in this republic, there goes forth a stream of light that falls upon, cheers, and 
improves every farm, workshop, and family hearth, in the country. The school 
house is the former and the nourisher of the mind in the district. It is the 
place where the farmer, the mechanic, and the mothers, receive their educa. 
tion. The school houses of this State have given our prosperity, our enter- 
prise, and our controlling station among the States. They have made it the 
"empire State;" for what are natural facilities unless there is mind to take 
advantage of them. Blow out the light of these institutions — let darkness 
rest upon these buildings, and we would soon grope our way to the savage 
state. Shut the door of the school hou*e, and agriculture is forgotten, manu- 
factures cease, and commerce stops. Strike from existence these intellectual 
fountains, which are daily pouring light and liberty over the land, and all is 
night — the darkness of midnight and barbarism. 

Friends of education ! to neglect these schools is as criminal, and shows the 
"tame want of patriotism and philanthropy, as to destroy them. Have you 
thought of this ? 



Moral Instruction. 

"Knowledge is power" — but power to do evil as well as good. To 
make intelligence, then, a good, and an instrument to do good, the heart must 
be cultivated and the moral feelings trained. 

Reading, writing, cyphering, &c, in themselves, have no moral character ; 
and there is, too, a kind of knowledge which, in itself, is neither good nor bad. 



19 



For instance : an acquaintance with arithmetic will be as ready to help the 
^Togue as the honest man ; — so of writing, etc. Learning makes depravity and 
villainy still more terrible. 

Education, therefore, without religious instruction, is not to be desired. 

With instruction, we must implant a disposition to make aright use of know, 
ledge. Hence, says Dr. Priestly: "I hesitate not to assert, that Religion is 
the first rational object of education." And says M. Cousin : *' Popular educa- 
tion, to be a good, must be religious." And the opinion of Milton was this.; 
"The end of learning is to know God aright, and out of that knowledge, to 
love and obey Him." How shall religious instruction be given, therefore, bo- 
comes a momentous question. 

Different means have beea tried, but for the most part they have proved de- 
fective. Some teachers believe that the moral improvement of children is at- 
taincd by a strict vigilance on their inclinations, habits, and vices, and by 
prompt punishments. But this is only a negative education ; its object being 
only to root out vices, and not the implanting of moral feelings and virtuous 
habus. And if good seed, is not sown, the field is soon overrun by weeds. 

Other teachers adopt an opposite system. They think that admonitions, ex. 
hortations, and reasonings, cannot fail to work a change in the minds and 
habits of children- But this does not always produce the desired effect. The 
children become so accustomed to these exhortations, that they do not mind 
them any longer ; and, what is worse, they become insensible to every kind of 
reasoning — a state of mind which ought carefully to be avoided. 

Thus it is believed that both of these systems are defective, and that it is 
from the moral qualities and the personal character of the teacher, that religious 
improvement can be reasonably expected. Either of the two systems may be 
resorted to, occasionally, but it is for the teacher " to point to heaven, and lead 
the way." For direction, let them read the following : 

CHRIST AN EXAMPLE TO COMMON SCHOOL TEACHERS. 

1. In the plainness, simplicity, and sincerity of his instruction. 

2. In the earnestness and affection of his addresses. 

3. In the faithfulness of his instructions. 

4. In his forbearance with the ignorance and infirmities of those whom h* 
taught. 

6. In the adaptation of his instructions to tho character and peculiarities of 
his hearers. 

7. In his improvement of cwnmon scenes, objects, and circumstances, to 
convey salutary instructions. The following may suffice : 

(1.) Instructions from agriculture. The ground. The seed. The flowers. 
The fruits. The grass. The harvest. The garner. The chuff. 

(2.) Instructions from living animals. Tho sheep and goats. The serpent. 
The dove. The ravens. Tho sparrows. 

(3.) Instructions from the employments of life. Tho fisherman. The bus- 
bandman. The shepherd. The steward. 

(4.) Instructions from Jewish customs. The feast. The marriage Th» 
dresses. The watches. 

Let teachers, then, " go and do likewise." 



20 



To Parents, 

Would a farmer take a beautiful horse to be shod, to a cheap blacksmith, thiC 
a penny or two may be saved ? He will n<»t, for he says, " the nail may be so 
driven into the foot as to make it lame, and I shall lose my horse. No, I had 
rather pay a few cents more, than run the risk of losing my noble Charlie." 

Two teachers apply for the sehool in his district. The one is ignorant, but 
offers to teach for $10 per month ; the other is experienced, but aslts $30 per 
month. The parents meet, and the $10 man is employed. That the young 
mind is a more delicate thing to handle than a horse's foot is not perceived ; 
and that the child is much more easily ruined by want of skill is never dream- 
ed of. 

A farmer sits in his door and sees a stranger coming in through the gate. 
The traveller approaches and asks the farmer if he does not want 44 to hire a 
hand." The farmer answers, "Yes, if I can find one to swit me." And then 
he puts the following questions to the stranger : — " Can you drive team ? Can 
you mow ? Can you chop ? Can you cradle ?" &c. &c. He is catechised most 
thoroughly. 

Immediately after, another stranger asks him if" his school does not want to 
hire a teacher." The only question which the farmer asks, is — " How much 
do you ask a month, sir ?" We ask the reader to remark the difference in the 
examination of the two applicants. 

Again, the parent will either work with the hired man, or get his son to do 
so, to prevent the laborer from slighting his work, or from wasting a moment's 
time. Or he will get his neighbor to peep over the fence occasionally, to see 
that the hired man does not sit down on the plough too often. But the same 
watchful parent will put a man over his children in the school house, and never 
go near him for years ! ! For the above facts I have never been able to ac- 
count. 

2dly. Parents will labor hard and live sparingly all their lives, to give their 
children a 11 start" in the world, as it is called. But setting a young man afloat 
with money left him, is like tying bladders under the arms of one who cannot 
swim. Ten chances to one that he will lose his bladders and go to the bottom. 
Teach him to sicim, and he will never need the bladders. Give a child a sound 
education and you have done enough for him. You have then given him a 
44 start" that will ensure happioess and victory in the race. 

44 A good education is a young man's best capital," was truly and beautifully 
said by M iss Sedgwick. And farmers, listen to Governor Everett, for he has 
spoken the following : 

44 Husbandmen, sow the seed of instruction in your sons' and daughters' 
minds. It will grow up and bear fruit, though the driving storms scatter the 
blossoms of spring. Plant the germ of truth in the infant understandings of 
your children— save — stint — spare — scrape— do any thing but steal — in order to 
nourish that growth ; and it is little to say that it will flourish when your grave ( 
stones, crumbled into dust, shall mingle with the dust they covered ;— it will 
flourish when that ovcr-arching heaven shall pass away like a scroll, and th« 
eternal sun which lightens it, shall set in blood." 



21 



If a blacksmith should put up the sigh, " Watches mended cheap," would you 
take your gold lever to him ? If you should, the quack, having heard that the 
Silversmith rubbed, ami pinched, and hammered the watch, would do tho same. 
Hut would your watch keep lime? So with the cheap teacher ; he takes the 
children, and rubs, and pinches, and hammers them — but do they keep time? 

If a parent could stand on the shore of the atlantic, and with one blow knock 
out all the light-houses, would he not be accountable for all the shipwrecks 
made during that darkness ? And if the parent, through avarice ornegligenoe 
withholds from his child the light of truth, is he not responsible for tho crimes 
that child may commit ? 

I have always admired that law of the Icelanders, which makes the cour^ 
inquire, when a child is accused, whether ilic parents have given the offender 
a good education. And if not, the caurt inflicts the punishment on tho 
parents. 

The parent, that at any rate procures his child a good mind, well principle 
and tempered, makes a better purchase for him, than to lay out the money to 
enlarge his farm. 

Spare the child in nick-nacks, toys and play-gamcs, in silks and ribbons, as 
much as you please ; but be not sparing in his education. It is not good bus* 
bandry to make his fortune rich and his mind poor,, 

School House. 

The site for a school house should be elevated, or at least dry and airy, wHh 
a few trees around it. The ground around the house should be graduated to 
conduct the water off, and either turfed or graveled. 

The building should front the south or west, rather than the north or east. 
If there should bo land sufficient for a small garden, it might be advantageously 
cultivated by the teacher and pupils, 

But they usually stand in the road, close by the wheelrut, and on some blcate> 
stony eminence, at the intersection of three or four roads, and where the win- 
ter's storms have an unbroken sweep, and hot rays of the summer's sun an op- 
pressive, burning glare. Then, again, on some low, refuse piece of land, good 
for nothing else but to put a school houso on. 

The whole scene is barren and desolate — there being, in the vicinity, neither 
iree, nor grass, but in every direction, either stagnant pools, heated sand, or 
flinty rocks. 

The structure, in most cases, is as bad as the location. For a fair likeness 
we ask the reader to look at tho Cut — " As some School Houses look," and 
contrast it with the light, beautiful specimen of architecture in the Cut, " Aa 
the School House should look," and the one on the first page. 

Every object, whether animate or inanimate, teaches us— each shady grove, 
or flowery shrub, or singing bird, teaches; and where nature is most eloquent, 
parents should place the infant mind. 

Very little attention is now paid to vcntillation of school rooms, and the con- 
sequence is, paleness, languor, and disease. As each child consumes about on* 
gallon of air a minute, the atmosphere soon becomes loaded with disease, and 
poisonous to the lungs. Vet this air is taken in and thrown out, over and over 
again, without being permitted to escape. 



7 * 22 

/ 

Works on .Education* 

Baron Cuvier always," says his biographer, "spent some part of the morlr^ 
ing in examining the books written for the use of the Elementary Schools of 
Paris." And an eloquent English writer has said : 44 1 know nothing wo more 
want in this country, than good class books for the use of Popular Schools — 
books that shall exercise the judgment, and teach the children to reflect. Such 
works should he written by persons ot philosophical minds, practised in educa- 
tion, and linked to no exclusive system — the great obstacle of knowledge in this 
country " 

The highest intellects should write school books, for the most learned men 
are always the most simple, pure, and perspicuous writers. 

It was once said : 44 Let me make the school books of a nation, and I care 
not who makes its laws." There is much wisdom in this apothegm ; for the 
echool books are the child's first books. They become a part of the infant 
mind — they shape and color our after thoughts. How much learning, and 
philosopn^, and sympathy, then, is required to write books for children ! 

As the Common School gives the majority of the people the whole of their 
education, it should teach, besides 44 reading, writing, and arithmetic," politi. 
cal knowledge and duties, domestic economy, agricultme, chemistry, philoso- 
phy, &c. All these subjects may be taught, if suitable books are introduced. 

The school books, published by J. Orville Taylor, 128 Fulton-street, 
are cheap and popular works which embrace the important subjects 
named above. The school that will obtain and use these books, will feel, at 
once, a new existence in interest and usefulness. 



Importance of Common Schools. 

From tables which have been carefully made, it is proved that nineteen out 
of twenty receive all their education in Common Schools. These schools then, 
educate the nation, and this education is that, and that only, which the Com- 
mon Schools are prepared to give. As is the Common School so is the edu- 
cation of the people. 

So the Common Schools are the sources of the nation's intelligence, they 
are both the guardians of our freedom and the pillars of this republic. With 
Common Schools, the empire and liberty of these States must rise or fall. 

The security of life, property, and civil liberty, lies in the virtue and intel- 
ligence of the people, and nineteen out of twenty ol our citizens must receive 
all their intelligence from the Common Schools. Who then can over esti- 
mate these primary Iiastitutions ? 

The importance of Common Schools will be more distinctly seen by looking 
at their relations with other Inptitulions. In this country, the very existence 
of Colleges, Academies, aiad Professional Seminaries is dependent on good 
Common Schools. The proof is this. If children while in neglected miser- 
able primary schools receive a distaste for letters, a dislike for mental refine* 
ment, they never can be induced to enter the higher school?. But let the 



23 



pfiM^^schools bo good, and the children receive in them a iove for letters* 
a ^^^pbr higher improvement, and they will go into the higher Seminaries 
fknd^Pns give these institutions their surest aid. " When the lower stratum of 
nir is warm, the upper cannot be cold. So of education. When its spirit is 
once thoroughly infused into the mass of the people, colleges will require no 
stimulus but the power of that spirit." 

Let us examine the connexion between the Bible Society and Common 
Schools. It will be remembered that these schools give to nineteen out of 
twenty, all their ability to read the Bible. The Bible Society is then, depen. 
dent on these schools ; for the distribution of the Scriptures presupposes an 
education, and just so far as tne people are not educated, this benevolent effort 
fails. As there are now among us one million of youth growing up in ignor- 
ance, does it not become the Bible distributor to inquire into the condition of 
Common Schools ? Before the sower goes forth to sow the sted, the soil must 
be prepared. Take the Temperance Society. Man will seek pleasure. If he 
finds it not in intellectual pursuits, he will peek it in the paths of sensual in- 
dulgence. And it is to be feared that without, early moral training and intel- 
lectual light, the vow to abstain will not be .as strong as the appetite to indulge. 
Before we can expect men to give up the indulgence of the rake, we must 
give them other sources of happiness. And hence, along with the temper, 
ancc pledge should go attractive and elevating instruction. 

The Pulpit is aiso dependent on Common Schools ; for the preacher must 
address his arguments to mind and intellect. But nineteen out of twenty in 
every congregation have such minds only as the Common Schools gave them, 
or prepared them to receive. The school-master is to tiil the ground for the 
seed of the preacher. If the former has not done his work, the sowing of the 
latter falls by the way side. And it was truly remarked by an old English 
Divine, " that the teacher often mars, what the preacher seldom mends.'' 

And finally, what is the value of laws, unless there is intelligence to per- 
ceive their justice, and virtue to which they can appeal ? But this intelli- 
gence and this virtue can he given to the great mass only through Common 
Schools ; and thus have we not shown that the character and condition »f 
these schools are of the highest importance to tho American people. 

School Books. 

Our schools can, and ought to, increase the MIND of the nation. Thef 
ouc'it to enlaige its views, its productive powers, its energies, and render the 
people industrious, and morally and intellectually happy. The common school* 
should 'prepare men for their callings, and for self-government. 

A series of school books, embracing these subjects, has just been issued, at 
128 Fulton-street, by J. Orville Taylor, and can be obtained at the book stores 
generally. 

<« Common School Assistant " — A monthly periodical, 8 quarto pnges, devo- 
ted to the improvement of Common Schools in the United States. Pi ice, 50 
cents a year to single subscribers : 1.3 copies for $5 00. Edited by Prof. J. 
Orville Taylor, and published at the rooms of the " American Common School 
Society, 128 Fulton -street, N. Y. 

Schools can be furnished with qualified teachers, by applying to J. OrvitW 
Taylor, 128 Fulton-stieet, N. Y. 



THE 



COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC 



Reader — you have not only a public, but a private interest in this 
Almanac ; for he that attends to his interior self, that has a heart 
and keeps it, a mind that hungers and supplies it ; who seeks a use- 
ful, not a worthless life, will find assistance here. 

Teach and habituate the people to make a right use of the facul- 
ties which God has given them, and then trust them fearlessly to 
themselves. 



FOR 




BY J. ORVILLE TAYLOR, 



PUBLISHED BY 
CLEMENT AND PACKARD, 



WHOLESALE BOOKSELLERS, 



180 Pearl Street, 
NEW YORK. 



** S k 

4£' " * EdUlNCrffiS AND SOLSTICES. 

D. H. M. 

Vernal Equinox, .... March 20 7 17 Evening 

Summer Solstice, .... June 21 4 26 Evening. 

Autumnal Equinox, . . . September 23 G 30 Morning. 

Winter Solstice, .... December 21 11 59 Evening. 



ECLIPSES FOR 1842. 
This year there will be three Eclipses of the Sun and two of the Moon. All 
of them are invisible in the United States. 
1st. Of the Sun, Jan. 11th. 
2d. Of the Moon, Jan. 26th, visible at Bengal, 
3d. Of the Sun, July 8th, visible at Madeira and China. 
4th. Of the Moon, July 22d, visible at Behring's Straits. 
5th. Of the Sun, Dec. 31st, visible in South America. 



MOVEABLE FEASTS. 

March 20 I Ascension Day, May 5 

March 27 | Pentecost, . . May 15 

April 3 Trinity Sunday, May 22 

May 1 | Advent Sunday, Nov. 27 



RATES OF POSTAGE. 
The following rates of postage are charged conformably to an act of Con- 



gress ; — 

For any distance not exceeding 30 miles, .... 6 cents. 

Over 30, and not over 80 miles, 10 

Over 80, and not over 150 miles, ... . ^ 12 1-2 

Over 150, and not over 400 miles, ..... 183-4 

Over 400 miles, . . 25 



Poubie Letters, or those composed of two pieces of paper, double those rates. 
Triple Letters, or those composed of three pieces of paper, triple those rates. 
Packets, or letters composed of one or more pieces of paper, or one or more 
other articles, and weighing one ounce avoirdupois, quadruple those rates, and in 
that proportion for all greater weight. 

Ship Letters, not carried by mail, are chargeable 6 cents, 

f^flf an abatement of letter postage be claimed, the letter must be opened in 
the presence of the postmaster, or one of his assistants; and if such letter 
should, instead of being overcharged, happen to be undercharged, the deficiency 
must be made up by the applicant. 



EPIPHANY, or 12th day — Celebrates the arrival of the wise men from the 
East. 

ASH WEDNESDAY— Is the day which commences the forty days of 
Lent. 

PALM SUNDAY— Celebrates Christ's entrance in Jerusalem. 
GOOD FRIDAY— Celebrates the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. 
EASTER SUNDAY— Celebrates the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. 
ASCENSION DAY — Is forty days after Easter Sunday. 
WHIT SUNDAY— Is forty nine days after Easter Sunday, and also the day 
of Pentecost. 

TRINITY— Is the next Sunday after Whit Sunday. 

ADVENT SUNDAY— Is that which is nearest to St. Andrew's day. 

CHRISTMAS— Celebrates the birth of our Saviour, Jesus Christ. 



Palm Sunday. 
Easter Sunday, 
Low Sunday, 
Rogation Sunday, 



ENTERED according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1841, by J. ORVILLE TAYtjOfr 
in the Clerk's Office uf the Southern District. Court of the United States, in New-York 



1842. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

d. ir. 

d Last Quarter, 3 5 
© New Moon, 11 11 
D First Quarter, 19 4 
O Full Moon, 26 0 



H.Wnt'i Moon Rises and Sets. 



M. 

12 A. 
19 M. 
4 A. 

43 A, 



i) 


D 


M 


W 


~l 


8^ 


2 


S 


3 


M 



4Tu 
5 W 
6Th 
7Fr 
8Sa 
9S 
10 M 



11 



16 



21 



22 Sa 



23 



26 



Tu 



12 W 

13 TU 

14 Fr 

15 Sa 



s 



17 M 

18 Tu 

19 VV 

20 Th 



Fr 



24 M 

25 Tu 



W 



27 Th 

28 Fr 

29 Sa 
30 



31 



bun 
Rises 



25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

24 

24 

24 

24 

23 

23 

23 

23 

22 

21 

20 

19 

19 

18 

17 

17 

16 

15 

14 

14 

12 



bun 
Sets. 



Sun's 
Dec') 



3 
4 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 
10 

59 20 45 10 
0 20 23 
2 20 21 



4 43 23 
4 44 22 56 
4 45 22 50 
4 45 22 44 
4 46 22 38 
4 47 22 31 
4 4S22 23 
4 49 22 17 
4 50 22 7 
4 5121 58 
4 5221 49 
4 5321 40 
4 54 21 30 
4 55 21 19 
4 56 21 8 
4 58 20 57 



feun jiVloon 
Slow. South 



51 
19 
47 
14 
41 

8 
34 

7 
35 

5011 



3 42 

4 36 

5 24 

6 12 
1 1 

7 51 

8 43 

9 36 
10 31 

18 
14 Ev. 
0 56 



3 20 811 



4 19 55 
519 41 
6 19 28 
•i 19 13 
818 5912 
918 44 12 
10 18 28 13 
12 18 13 13 



10 



38 

1 
23 
44 

5 
26 
45 

4 
22 
39 
55 
11 
2610 3 
4011 
53 Morn. 



39 
21 
2 
42 

4 22 

5 4 

5 49 

6 39 

7 32 

8 31 

9 33 



5 1317 5713 



14 17 40 



17 2413 



L3 



5 
17 

28 
27 
37 



0 37 

1 34 

2 26 

3 17 

4 5 



• 



Morn 
0 42 



S3 

O 
C3 
03 
CO 
03 



10 2510 25 10 25 



11 31 



1 28 Morn 



2 28 

3 43 

5 5 

6 18 

7 17 

8 5 

8 43 

9 15 
9 59 

10 20 

10 49 

11 10 
11 40 



0 41 



1 55 

3 7 

4 35 
6 7 
6 21 
8 22 



9 40 

10 10 

10 35 

11 1 



0 40 

1 50 

3 2 

4 8 

5 10 

5 45 

6 47 
Sets 

5 54 

6 53 

7 54 

8 51 

9 52 



o 

■ 

> 



Aft 710 52 



11 54 



1 18 Morn 



1 0 

2 8 

3 20 

4 30 

5 35 

6 32 



9 7 Rises. 



6 45 

8 3 

9 16 



11 30 
Morn 

0 39 

1 47 

2 57 
4 
5 

5 39 

6 41 
Sets 

5 58 

6 56 

7 56 

8 52 

9 52 

10 51 

11 52 
Morn 

0 56 

2 3 

3 14 

4 22 

5 29 

6 27 
Rises. 

6 48 

8 5 

9 16 



10 25 10 2510 23 



11 26 
Morn 

0 34 

1 42 

2 37 

3 38 

4 37 

5 12 

6 16 
Sets 

6 16 

7 10 

8 5 

8 56 

9 52 

10 47 

11 43 
Morn 

0 38 

1 40 

2 49 

3 55 

5 4 

6 7 
llises. 

7 3 

8 14 

9 17 



Morn |ll 40 [ll 39 11 3 1 



WHY WE ARE INDIFFERENT. 
The cause of Education is so good, so very good, so undeni- 
ably good, that we care nothing about it. If there was an ac- 
||Ke, strong party, advocating ignorance, the people would arouse. 



1842. 



FEBRUARY. 



2S Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



D. 



d Last Quarter, 2 
© New Mooii, 9 
D First Quarter, 18 
O Full Moon, 24 



H. 

5 
6 
11 
11 



M. 

30 M. 
58 M. 
44 M. 
19 A. 



20 
21 



24 
25 
26 
27 

28 



lTu 
2W 
3Th 
4Fr 
5Sa 
6S 
M. 
8Tu 
9W 
lOTh 
11F.I 
12 Sa 
13S 

14 M 

15 Tu 

16 W 

17 Th 

18 Fr 
19Sa 



22 Tu 

23 W 



Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 



Sun 
Rises 
H.M. 



6 59 
6 58 
6 57 
6 55 
6 54 
6 52 
6 51 
6 50 
6 49 
6 48 
6 46 
6 45 
6 43 
6 42 
6 40 
6 39 
6 37 
6 36 



Sun 
Sets. 
H.M. 



19 17 
1916 

20 16 



21 



22 15 
2315 
2515 
2615 



27 



2914 



33 13 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
o 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 44 
5 46 
5 47 
5 48 
5 49 
5 50 



37 



38 11 



39 



Sun's 
Dec'L 
D. M 



16 



32 L4 
14 14 



56 



38 14 
1914 



14 



36 12 



12 



11 



40 10 
4210 
43 10 
9 
9 
9 
8 



Sun 
Slow. 
M. S. 



14 



6 
53 
33 
34 Aft 20 



3110 
3211 



214 
4314 
4014 

214 



3914 
1814 
56 
35 13 
1313 



51 



29 13 32 Morn 



13 
4413 
22 13 
7 59 12 



13 



Moon 
South 
H. M. 



57 
47 



4 

5 

6 39 

7 32 

8 25 

9 17 
10 



1 1 

1 41 



21 

3 
46 
33 
23 



6 18 

7 17 

8 17 

9 19 



0 9 

1 2 

1 54 

2 45 



H.Wat'r| Moon Rises and Sets. 



o 



H.M. H.M. 
~(Tl6 Morn" 



1 1 

1 56 

3 7 

4 34 

5 53 

6 §4 

7 41 

8 22 

8 54 

9 30 
10 2 

10 32 

11 3 



1 39 

2 40 

4 6 

5 47 

7 6 

8 5 



8 52 



40 



1 58 



3 0 

4 1 

4 46 

5 27 

6 4 



6 28 
Sets 

5 47 

6 46 

7 48 

8 22 

9 44 



4510 



11 36 10 4 
0 1511 57 11 5311 



0 51 Morn 



1 6 

2 15 

3 19 

4 12 

5 4 

5 43 

6 5 



9 Rises. 



8 4 



9 
9 

10 51 9 14 
10 40 10 



o 
i 

H. M. 



Morn 



Sets 

5 49 

6 4? 

7 48 

8 22 

9 43 
10 



Morn 

1 0 

2 9 

3 13 

4 7 

5 0 

5 39 

6 4 
Rises. 

8 4 

9 19 
25 10 27 



M 



H. M. 



Morn 

1 36 

2 32 



30 
13 
56 
36 
3 



Sets 
6 0 

6 53 

7 49 

8 20 

9 36 
33 



Morn 

0 35 

1 42 

2 48 

3 44 

4 22 

5 26 
5 58 

Rises. 

8 4 

9 20 
10 38 



We should remember that wickedness that is vigilant will be 
an overmatch for virtue, if she slumber on her pos f ; and 
hence it is that a bad cause has often triumphed over a good 
one; for the followers of the former knowing their cause wiU. 



1842. 



MARCH. 





81 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. 

d Last Quarter, 3 
• New Moon, 12 
D First Quarter, 19 
O Full Moon, 26 



M. 

8 26 A. 
1 32 M. 
5 45 A. 

9 0 M. 



D D 
M W 

Tu 
W 
3Th 
4Fr 
5Sa 
6S 
7M 
8Tu 
VV 

10 Th 

11 Fr 

12 Sa 

13S 

14 M 

15 Tu 

16 W 

17 Th 

18 Fr 
19Sa 



16 
27 



28 \1 



29 



31 



Sun 
Rises 



20 
21 
22 Tu 



W 
Th 



25 Fr 



S 



30 W 



Th 



6 35 
6 34 
6 32 
6 31 
6 29 
6 28 
6 26 
6 25 
6 23 
6 21 
6 19 
6 17 
6 15 
6 14 
6 13 
6 11 
6 10 
6 8 



6 59 
6 57 
6 55 
6 54 
6 53 
6 51 
5 49 
5 47 



oun 
Sets 



50 
51 
52 
54 
55 
56 
57 
59 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

6 7 
6 8 
6 9 
6 10 
6 11 
6 13 
6 14 
6 15 
6 16 
6 17 
6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 21 
6 22 
6 23 



Sun's 
Dec'l. 



7 37 
7 14 
6 51 
6 28 
6 5 
5 41 
5 18 



4 55 
4 31 



2 57 
2 34 
2 10 
1 46 
1 23 
0 59 
0 35 
N 

0 35 

0 59 

1 22 
46 

9 
33 
50 
20 
43 
6 



bun 
Slow. 



4 29 



39 
26 
14 
1 

47 
33 
19 

4 
49 
33 
17 

1 
45 
28 
11 
54 
36 
19 

1 

43 
24 
6 
48 
29 
11 
52 
33 
15 
56 
37 
19 



Moon 
South 



3 37 

4 31 

5 24 

6 19 

7 12 

8 3 

8 51 

9 36 

10 19 

11 0 
11 40 
Aft 21 

1 2 



45 
31 



3 20 

4 12 



9 
7 
6 
3 
59 
54 

10 46 

11 33 
Morn 

0 30 

1 22 

2 17 

3 13 

4 8 



H.Wat'r Morm Rises and Sets. 



11 20 
11 59 
Morn 

1 36 

2 45 

4 2 

5 2(i 

6 24 

7 12 

7 52 

8 27 

8 59 

9 31 
10 3 

10 36 

11 9 



m 
P 

'Jl 



a 

Morn 

0 49 

1 53 

2 46 

3 28 

4 6 

4 34 

5 1 

5 22 
Sets 

6 36 

7 40 

8 42 

9 45 
10 



4511 41 
Morn 

0 43 

1 4 



11 46Morn 



Aft 28 

1 18 

2 22 

3 48 

5 26 

6 47 

7 44 

8 29| 5 11 

9 9 Rises. 



0 
1 

2 
3 

3 39 

4 9 
4 40 



Rises. 
9 43 8 5 8 4 
10 18 9 22 9 19 

10 3010 32 10 2« 

11 011 3611 31 
11 39 Morn. Morn 



S5 



5 21 
Sets 

6 36 

7 39 

8 40 

9 42 
»810 53 

11 59 



Morn 

1 C 

2 2 



11 23 
Morn 
0 19 



20 
12 
58 
40 
13 
45 
6 13 
Sets 

6 36 

7 37 

8 29 

9 27 

10 33 

11 33 
Morn 

0 33 

1 39 

2 42 

3 21 

4 0 

4 37 

5 12 
Rises. 

7 56 
9 5 

10 9 

11 6 
Morn 



do nothing for them, do every thing for their cause ; whereas? 
the friends of education, expecting every thing from the goodness 
of their cause, do nothing for it themselves. 

| A patriot is known by the interest he takes in common schools. 



1842. 



APRIL. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. II. m. 

d Last Quarter, 2 1 33 A. 

m New Moon, 10 1 35 A. 

]> First Quarter, 18 1 36 M. 

O Full Moon, 24 6 31 A. 



D 
W 



2Sa 
3S 
4M 
5Tu 
6 W 
Th 
8Fr 
9Sa 
10S 



M 
Tu 



21 



24 



20 



2- 



13W 
14 Th 

If! 

16 Sa 
17 

18 M 

19 Tu 

20 W 



Th 



22Fr 
•23 Sa 



s 



25 M 



Tu 



27 W 



Th 



29 Fr 

30 Sa 



Sun 


Sun 


Sun's 


Sun 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Decl. 


Slow. 


H.M. 


H. M. 


D. M. 


M. 


S. 


5 


41 




4 40 


4 


11 


5 


43 


6 a5 


4 52 


3 


42 


5 


41 


6 26 


5 15 


3 


24 


Q 


39 


6 27 


5 3S 


3 


6 


5 


37 


6 28 


6 1 


2 


49 


5 


35 


6 29 


6 24 


2 


31 


5 


33 


6 30 


6 47 


2 


14 


5 


32 


6 31 


7 9 


1 


57 


5 


30 


6 32 


7 34 


1 


40 


5 


28 


6 33 


7 54 


1 


23 


5 


27 


6 34 


8 10 


1 


7 


5 


25 


6 35 


8 38 


0 


51 


5 


24 


6 3.) 


9 0 


0 


35 


5 


23 


6 37 


9 21 


0 


19 


5 


21 


(5 38 


9 43 


Fast. 


5 


20 


6 39 


10 4 


0 


10 


~j 


IS 


6 40 


10 25 


0 


24 


«-» 


1 f» 

1 u 


6 41 


10 46 


0 


38 


5 


15 


6 42 


11 7 


0 


52 


5 


13 


, 6 43 


11 28 


1 


5 


5 


12 


6 45 


11 4S 


1 


IS 


5 


10 


6 46 


12 9 


1 


31 


5 


9 


6 47 


12 29 


1 


43 


5 


8 


6 4^ 


12 49 


1 


54 


5 


6 


6 49 


13 8 


2 




5 


5 


6 50 


13 28 


2 


16 


5 


4 


6 51 


13 47 


2 


26 


5 


2 


6 52 


14 6 


2 


36 


5 


1 


6 53 


14 25 


2 


45 


5 


0 


6 54 


14 43 


2 


54 



Moon 
South 



5 3 

5 46 

6 45 

7 32 

8 17 
8 59 
H 38 

10 19 

10 59 

11 42 
Ai*t27 



16 

8 
3 
0 
59 
57 



6 54 

7 45 

8 36 

9 27 

10 17 

11 8 
Morn 

0 2 

0 58 

1 54 

2 50 

3 45 

4 37 



H.Wat'rl Moon Itis^s and Sets. 



Morn 

1 16 

2 2 

3 20 

4 34 

5 38 

6 36 

7 14 

7 52 

8 26 

9 1 
9 38 

10 15 
10 51 



3 29 
4 
6 
7 
8 



50 
14 
15 



3 

9 

9 23 
10 2 



1 15 

2 ( 

2 35 

3 4 



Sets. 

7 539 

8 44 

9 55 
11 C 



11 3211 57 
Aft 16 Morn 



0 54 

1 36 

2 13 

2 43 

3 8 

3 39 

4 25 
4 Rises 

8 8 

9 18 



10 42 10 19 



11 21 
Morn 



1 9 

1 55 

2 30 

3 0 
3 24 

3 45 

4 9 

5 2 
5 54 
Sets. 

7 34 

8 40 

9 50 

10 54 

1 1 51 
Morn 

0 5U 

1 33 

2 12 

2 43 

3 8 

3 40 

4 27 
Rises. 

8 4 

9 13 

10 13 



11 14 

11 58 



0 6 Morn 



11 52 
Morn 



0 44 

1 31 

2 7 

2 41 

3 10 

3 34 

4 6 

5 2 
5 57 
Sets. 

7 20 

8 22 

9 27 

10 29 

11 26 
Morn 

0 31 

1 19 

2 4 

2 41 

3 8 

3 45 

4 38 
Rises. 

7 47 

8 53 

9 49 



11 810 43 



11 27 
Morn 



ONE OR THE OTHER. 

To govern men, there must be either Soldiers or Schoolmasters, 
Books or Bayonets, Camps and Campaigns, or Shcools and Churches 
— the cartridge box or the ballot box. ^ 



1842. 



MAY. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



d Last Quarter, 2 
© New Moon, 10 
D First Quarter, 17 
O Full Moon, 22 



II. 

i 

6 
7 
4 



M. 

50 M. 

42 M. 
14 M. 

43 M. 



D 
W 

S 

iVI 
3Tu 
4 
5 



li 



rh 

6Fr 



Sa 

s 

9M 
10 Tu 



l2Th 
13 Fr 
14Sa 

s 



15 
16 
17 
18 



19Th 
20 Fr 



21 

22 
2 



25 



24 Tu 



VV 



26 Th 

27 F 
288a 
29 S 



Sun 



4 59 
4 58 
4 57 
4 56 
4 55 
4 54 



M 
Tu 



Sun 
Sets. 



<> 5515 2 



6 56 



53 

52 

51 

50 

49 

48 

47 

40 

44 

43 

42 

41 

40 

39 

89 

37 

35 

36 

35 

34 

34 

33 

32 

32 

31 



Sun's 
Decl. 



15 20 



6 57 15 38 

6 5815 55 

6 59 16 lk 

7 016 29 



16 46 



2 17 



417 35 



17 19 



Sun 
Fast. 



iVloou 
South 



17 50 

18 6 

18 2] 
818 35 
918 50 

1019 4 

19 18 
19 31 
19 44 
19 57 

14 20 9 

15 20 21 

16 20 33 

17 20 44 

18 20 55 
1921 6 
20 21 16 
2121 26 
22 21 36 

22 21 45 

23 21 54 



3 2 
3 9 
3 16 
3 23 
3 28 
3 34 
3 38 
3 42 
3 46 
3 49 
3 51 
3 53 
3 54 
3 54 
3 54 
3 54 
3 53 
3 51 
3 49 
3 47 
3 43 
3 40 
3 35 
3 31 
3 25 
3 20 
3 13 
3 7 
2 59 
2 52 
2 44 



H.Wat'r 



5 25 

6 10 

6 53 

7 34 

8 15 

8 55 

9 38 

10 22 

11 10 
11 59 
A ft 57 

1 55 

2 54 

3 53 

4 49 

5 43 

6 32 

7 22 

8 10 

9 0 
9 51 

10 41 

11 40 
Morn 

0 37 

1 32 

2 27 

3 17 

4 4 

4 48 

5 30 



Moon Rises and Sets. 



O 

i 
as 

0~53 
2 31 

2 31 

3 33 

4 36 

5 36 

6 28 

7 16 

7 57 

8 37 

9 17 
10 



10 43 10 51 

11 2411 39 11 34 



Aft 8 Morn 



1 

1 49 

2 55 

4 18 

5 39 

6 46 

7 39 

8 20 
9 

9 47 
10 10 



11 



Morn 
1 



r3 

1 1] 

1 27 

1 50 

2 13 
2 36 

2 58 

3 22 

3 54 

4 24 
Sets. 

8 50 

9 52 



Js5 
s- 
O 

<U 

*L 

0 57 

1 24 

1 48 

2 12 
2 36 

2 58 

3 23 

3 56 

4 28 
Sets. 

8 44 

9 46 
11 45 



0 38 



Morn 
0 11 

0 44 

1 11 

1 39 

2 11 

2 37 
3 

3 43 
Rises 

8 55 

9 46 
10 11 

10 58 

11 27 
Morn 



0 14 

0 45 

1 11 

1 39 

2 9 

2 34 

3 6 
3 38 

3 Rises. 
9 1 
0 52 



10 3010 17 



11 3 



11 4611 31 



Morn 
0 16 



09 
37 
r, 

35 
0 
30 

8 

4 45 
Sets. 

8 20 

9 21 

10 20 

11 11 
11 58 
Morn 

0 37 

1 10 

1 41 

2 20 

2 50 

3 28 

4 6 
Rises. 

8 30 

9 21 
9 47 

10 39 

11 10 
Morn 



0 13| 0 1 



THE TEACHER'S REWARD. 
Do we not pay those best who amuse us, and those least who in- 
struct us? On whom do we lavish our wealth, our respect, and our 
^attention? "Are not the purse, talents, and all, squandered upon 



1842. 



JUNE. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES, p. h. 

<[ Last Quarter, 1 1 

® New Moon, 8 5 

D First Quarter, 15 11 

O Full Moon, 24 4 

d Last Quarter, 30 6 



55 M. 
17 A. 
55 M. 
25 A. 
44 A. 



D 



D 



M W 

~T vv 

2Th 

3Fr 

4Sa 

5S 

6M 

7 Tu 

8W 

9Th 

10 Fr 

11 Sa 

12S 

13 M 

14 Tu 

15 W 

16 Th 

17 Fr 

18 Sa 
19S 

20 M 

21 Tu 

22 W 

23 Th 

24 Fr 

25 Sa 

26 S 

27 M 

28 Tu 

29 W 

30 Th 



Sun 
Rises. 
H. M. 



31 

30 
30 
29 
29 
29 
23 
28 
28 
28 
23 
28 
28 
29 
2S 
23 
28 
23 
29 



4 29 



29 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
30 



4 31 
4 31 
4 31 



fenn 
Sets. 
H. M 



26 22 

27 22 

28 22 



30 23 



34 



35 



35 



Sun's 
Decl 
D. M 



22 
22 
22 
22 



32 23 



34 23 
34 23 
34 23 



23 



34 23 



23 



35 23 



23 



35 23 



to un 
Fast. 
M. S. 



3 25 
2 26 



16 

7 
56 
46 
35 
24 
12 
1 

49 
36 
0 24 
0 12 



19 Slow. 



0 13 
0 25 
0 38 

0 51 

1 4 
1 17 
1 30 
1 43 

1 56 

2 8 



2 58 

3 10 



Moon 
South 
EL M. 



6 1U 

6 50 

7 32 

8 15 

9 1 
9 50 

10 45 

11 35 
Aft 44 

1 43 

2 42 

3 37 

4 30 

5 19 

6 8 

6 57 

7 47 

8 38 

9 33 

10 27 

11 22 
Morn 

0 17 



9 
59 
43 
25 
06 
46 
26 



H.Wat'r Moon Rises and Sets. 



© 
> 

H. M. 


33 

'Massachusetts. 


© 

o 

H. M. 


o 

JU 

H. M. 


1 47 


1 40 


0 40 


0 37 


2 24 


1 0 


1 0 


1 i 


3 30 


1 22 


1 23 


1 28 


4 34 


1 48 


1 50 


2 0 


5 38 


2 36 


2 39 


2 42 


6 37 


2 59 


3 3 


3 22 


7 30 


3 39 


3 44 


4 27 


8 21 


Sets. 


Sets. 


Sets. 


9 2 


8 41 


8 35 


8 10 


9 52 


9 29 


9 24 


9 1 


10 33 


10 12 


10 8 


9 40 


11 13 


10 49 


10 46 


10 31 


11 55 


11 11 


11 9 


11 0 


Aft 33 


11 44 


tl 44 


11 42 


1 23 


Morn 


Morn 


Morn 


2 24 


0 11 


0 12 


0 19 


3 33 


0 39 


0 41 


0 53 


4 47 


i y 


1 13 


1 30 


6 14 


1 39 


1 44 


2 5 


7 16 


2 17 


2 23 


2 47 


8 7 


3 2 


3 8 


3 33 


8 48 


Rises. 


R i«;p«; 


Rises. 


9 28 


7 46 


7 40 


7 15 


9 50 


8 19 


8 14 


7 51 


10 12 


9 5 


9 1 


8 42 


10 46 


9 29 


9 26 


9 12 


11 20 


9 55 


9 53 


9 43 


11 40 


10 17 


10 16 


10 11 


Morn 


10 39 


10 39 


10 39 


1 30 


11 24 


11 24 


11 27 



those who pander to ignorance and folly ? Vagrant singers and 
harlequins are flattered and feasted; quacks realize a fortune— a 
foreign dancer, publicly violating all decency, and (in correspond- 
ence \yith her own movements,) turning the public mind ups£^ 



1842. 



JULY. 



MOON'S PHASES. 















D. 


H. 


M. 


















€> New Moon, 


8 


2 


4 M. 






tn 








D First Quarter, 14 


5 


9 


A. 














O Full Moon 


> 


22 


6 


1 M. 




w 




a 

© 




d Last Quarter, 


30 


9 


41 M. 


O 


rt 


o 


05 


1) 


D 


Sun 


Sun 


Sun's 


S 


in 


Moon 


CP 


in 
cc 
a* 




c3 


M 


vv 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Decl. 


Slow. 


Sout !i 






CD 


_c 
Q 


~T 


Fr 


4 


31 


7 


35 


23 


g 


3 


22 


6 


8 


1 


44 


11 47 


11 49 


11 58 


2 


Sa 


4 


3*2 


7 


35 


23 


4 


3 


33 


6 


52 


2 


32 


Morn 


Morn 


Morn 


3 


s 


4 


32 


7 


35 


22 


59 


Q 
o 




7 


39 


3 


31 


0 15 


0 19 


0 36 


4 


M 


4 


33 


7 


34 


22 


54 


3 


55 
•t 'j 


8 


30 


4 


47 


0 59 


1 3 


1 24 


5 


Tu 


4 


33 


7 


34 


22 


49 


4 




9 


27 


6 


2 


1 34 


1 30 


2 4 


6 


W 


4 


34 


7 


34 


22 


43 


4 


17 


10 


27 


7 


11 


2 30 


2 36 


3 1 


7 


Th 


4 


35 


7 


34 


22 


37 


4 


27 


11 


23 


8 


2 


Sets. 


Sets. 


Sets. 


8 


Fr 


4 


35 


7 


33 


22 


31 


4 


32 


Aft 28 


8 


55 


8 9 


8 4 


7 43 


9 


Sa 


4 


36 


7 


33 


22 


24 


4 


46 


1 


.6 


9 


41 


8 48 


8 44 


8 27 


10 


s 


4 


37 


7 


33 


22 


16 


4. 


55 


2 


21 


10 


20 


9 17 


9 15 


9 4 


11 


M 


4 


3S 


7 


32 


22 


9 


5 


3 


3 


14 


10 


47 


9 46 


9 46 


9 43 


12 


Tu 


4 


39 


7 


32 


22 


1 


5 


11 


4 


5 


11 


35 


10 15 


10 15 


10 15 


13 


W 


4 


39 


7 


31 


21 


53 


5 


19 


4 


54 


Aft 16 


10 12 


10 44 


10 49 


14 


Th 


4 


40 


7 


31 


21 


43 


5 


26 


5 


44 


0 


56 


11 9 


11 14 


11 25 


15 


Fr 


4 


41 


7 


30 


21 


34 


5 


33 


6 


35 


1 


53 


11 37 


11 45 


Morn 


16 


Sa 


4 


42 


7 


29 


21 


25 


5 


39 


7 


28 


3 


0 


Morn 


Morn 


0 1 


17 


s 


4 


43 


7 


29 


21 


15 


5 


44 


8 


21 


4 


24 


0 9 


0 22 


0 46 


18 


M 


4 


44 


7 


28 


21 


4 


5 


49 


9 


17 


5 


49 


0 48 


1 2 


1 27 


19 


Tu 


4 


44 


7 


27 


20 


54 


5 


54 


10 


11 


6 


54 


1 40 


1 54 


2 19 


20 


W 


4 


45 


7 


27 


20 


43 


5 


58 


11 


4 


7 


47 


2 36 


2 84 


3 11 


21 


Th 


4 


46 


7 


26 


20 


31 


6 


1 


11 


53 


8 


33 


3 38 


3 49 


4 9 


22 


Fr 


4 


47 


7 


25 


20 


20 


6 


4 


Morn 


9 


20 


Rises. 


Rises. 


Rises. 


23 


Sa 


4 


48 


7 


24 


20 


8 


6 


6 


0 


39 


9 


47 


8 4 


7 56 


7 40 


24 


s 


4 


49 


7 


23 


19 


55 


6 


7 


1 


22 


10 


14 


8 28 


8 22 


8 10 


25 


VI 


4 


49 


7 


22 


19 


43 


6 


9 


2 


4 


10 


38 


8 47 


8 44 


8 37 


26 


Tu 


4 


50 


7 


22 


19 


30 


6 


9 


2 


44 


11 


0 


9 6 


9 5 


9 3 


27 


W 


4 


51 


7 


21 


19 


16 


6 


9 


3 


24 


11 


30 


9 27 


9 27 


9 28 


23 


Th 


4 


52 


7 


20 


19 


3 


6 


8 


4 


4 


Morn 


9 49 


9 52 


9 58 


29 


Fr 


4 


53 


7 


19 


18 


49 


6 


7 


4 


47 


0 


26 


10 15 


10 20 


10 31 


30 


Sa 


4 


54 


7 


18 


18 


34 


6 


5 


5 


31 


1 


4 


10 30 


10 38 


10 53 


31 


s 


4 


54 


7 


17 


18 


20 


6 


3 


6 


30 


1 


48 


11 2i 


11 31 


11 50 



31 Days. 

H.Wat'r Moon Rises and Sets. 



down ;" the rank, beauty, and fashion of the land rivalling to pay 
her their devotions, or so far made the animal by her influence, as 
to be eager to be harnessed to her car ! ! Whom, we ask again, do 
honor and reward ? Not the quiet conscientious school teacher, 



1S42. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days. 







MOON'S PHASES. 




H.Wat'r 


Moon Rises and Sets. 




0 New Moon, 


D. 

6 


H. 

9 


M. 

49 M. 






t» 








D First Quarter, 


13 


0 


25 M. 






o> ■ 








O Full Moon, 


20 


9 


17 A. 




CO 

3 


• 

U 


O 




d Last Quarter, 


28 10 


53 A. 


w-Yo 


w 

Cj 


o 


CO 


D 


D 


Sun 


Sun 


Sun's 


Sun 


Moon 


w 






M 


W 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Dec'l. 


Slow. 


South 


CD 


g 


& 


o 


~T 


iVl 




7 id 
I 10 


lo 0 


6 


0 


/ lo 


2 


46 


Morn 


Morn 


Morn 


2 


1 u 


/I Fi^ 

4 0/ 


7 1 Fi 
4 10 


1 >7 Fin 
1 7 OU 


5 


56 


Q 1 A 

o 10 


4 


3 


1 3 


1 9 


1 34 


3 


VV 


/I FiQ 

4 Oo 


•7 1/1 

/ 14 


1 *7 Q /I 

17 o4 


5 


52 


A A 

y u 


5 


36 


2 13 


2 19 


2 44 


4 


i n 


Fi Fin 
0 09 


7 1 Q 

7 Id 


17 lo 


5 


47 


in n 

10 0 


6 


43 


3 30 


3 35 


3 58 


5 


p. 
r r 


Fi a 
O 11 


7 in 

/ 14, 


17 O 

17 4, 


5 


42 


11 1 

11 1 


7 


47 


4 46 


4 50 


5 9 


6 


□a 


K 1 
0 1 


1 ii 
/ 11 


1 ft A Ct 

lb 4b 


5 


36 


1 1 Fin 

1 1 oy 


8 


50 


Sets. 


Sets. 


Sets. 


7 




Fi O 

0 2 


/ 10 


i ci on 
lb 


5 


29 


A ft- *> 
Alt Z 


9 


24 


7 51 


7 50 


7 42 


8 


Vf 

iVl 


0 o 


7 O 

/ o 


lb 1<J 


5 


22 


1 Fifi 

1 00 


10 


0 


8 12 


8 12 


8 11 


9 


1 u 


O 4 


T 7 


1/3 FiFi 

lb 00 


5 


15 


O A *1 

2 47 


10 


45 


8 48 


8 48 


8 49 


10 


w 


Fi Fi 

o 0 


7 b 


lo oo 


5 


6 


O OO 


11 


17 


9 13 


9 15 


9 24 


11 


1 n 


O O 


■7 Fi 

7 5 


1 O KA 
12 OU 


4 


57 


a on 
4 oU 


11 


56 


9 45 


9 48 


10 2 


12 


rr 


Fi 7 

0 i 


7 o 
i O 


1 Fi O 
10 4 


4 


48 


Fi OQ 

0 4,6 


Aft 36 


10 17 


10 21 


10 40 


13 


Q„ 

oa 


0 0 


7 o 

' 2 


1/1 A A 

14 44 


4 


38 


fi 1 c 

b lo 


1 


30 


U 8 


11 13 


11 36 


14 


G* 

iS 


Fi n 

o y 


/ 0 


1 A Ofi 

14 <<sb 


4 


27 


7 1 O 

/ lo 


2 


40 


11 44 


11 50 


Morn 


15 


iVl 


Fi 1 A 

0 1U 


A Fin 

o oy 


1 A 7 
14 / 


4 


16 


Q 7 


4 


3 


Morn 


Morn 


0 15 


16 


1 U 


Fi 11 


FiQ 

0 Oo 


in a q 

lo 4o 


4 


4 


Q A 

y u 


5 


26 


0 31 


0 37 


1 1 


17 


VV 


Fi 1 O 
0 14 


fi Fi>7 

O 07 


1 Q OA 

lo yy 


3 


52 


Q AC\ 

y 4y 


6 


36 


1 36 


1 41 


2 2 


18 


1 n 


Fi 1Q 
0 Id 


fi Fit: 

o Oo 


1 Q If* 
lo 1U 


3 


39 


1 A Q7 

1U o / 


7 


25 


2 35 


2 39 


2 56 


19 


r r 


Fi 1/1 
O 14 


fi Fi/| 

O 04 


1 O Kl 
14 01 


3 


26 


1 1 OA 
1 1 A\J 


8 


10 


3 40 


3 43 


3 56 


20 


oa 


Fi 1 F, 
0 10 


O 0o 


1 O O 1 

U ol 


3 


12 


iviorn 


8 


43 


Rises. 


Rises. 


Rises. 


21 


c* 
2> 


Fi 1 A 

D lo 


fi Fil 

b 51 


12 1 i 


2 


58 


A O 

u z 


9 


17 


6 47 


6 46 


6 34 


22 


M 


5 17 


6 50 


11 51 


2 


43 


0 43 


9 


41 


7 12 


7 12 


7 9 


23 


Tu 


5 18 


6 49 


11 31 


2 


28 


1 23 


9 


59 


7 34 


7 34 


7 34 


24 


W 


5 19 


6 47 


11 10 


2 


12 


2 3 


10 


25 


7 49 


7 50 


7 55 


25 


Th 


5 20 


6 45 


10 50 


1 


56 


2 44 


10 


50 


8 19 


8 23 


8 31 


26 


Fr 


5 21 


6 43 


10 29 


1 


40 


3 28 


11 


21 


8 46 


8 54 


9 5 


27 


Sa 


5 22 


6 41 


10 8 


1 


23 


4 15 


11 


57 


9 24 


9 27 


9 45 


28 


s 


5 23 


0 40 


9 47 


1 


6 


5 4 


Morn 


10 6 


10 11 


10 32 


29 


M 


5 24 


6 38 


9 26 


0 


48 


5 58 


I 


18 


10 57 


11 3 


11 27 


30 


Tu 


5 25 


6 36 


9 4 


0 


31 


6 54 


2 


13 


11 41 


11 47 


Morn 


31 


W 


5 26 


6 34 


8 43 


0 


12 


7 53 


3 


32 


Morn | 


Morn 


0 12 



daily and steadily, though obscurely, preparing himself to be 
the great teacher of mankind. Not him whose laborious of- 
fice it is "to control petulance, excite indifference, and en. 
lighten stupidity." Not him who gives to freedom that rich^: 



1842. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



• New Moon, 4 
D First Quarter, 11 
O Full Moon, 19 
d Last Quarter, 27 



H. 

5 
11 

1 
10 



M. 

19 A. 

2 M. 
37 A. 

9 M. 



Th 
2Fr 
3Sa 
4S 
5M 



Tu 
W 
Th 
9Fr 
10 Sa 



11 



3 



12 M 



21 



24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



w 

Th 



16 Fr 

17 Sa 
lfcS 

19 M 

20 Tu 



W 



22 Th 

23 Fr 



Sa 

s 

M 

Tu 

W 



29 Th 

30 Fr 



Sun 
Rises. 
H. M. 



28 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
42 
13 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
02 
63 
54 
65 



Sun 
Sets. 
H.M 



6 32 
6 32 
6 30 
6 29 
6 27 
6 26 
6 24 
6 23 
6 21 
6 19 
6 Is 
6 16 
6 14 
6 12 
6 10 



6 
6 
0 
G 
6 
6 

5 59 
5 57 
5 55 
5 53 
5 52 
5 50 
5 49 
5 47 
5 45 



Sun's 
Decl. 
D. M. 



8 21 



6 53 
6 30 
6 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 



45 
33 
0 
37 
14 
3 57 
3 28 



5 
42 
19 

50 
3:} 
9 

0 46 
0 22 
Slow. 
0 23 
0 47 



10 

34 
57 
20 
44 



Sun 
Fast. 
M. S. 



8 51 

9 49 
43 10 45 

37 
Aft 32 



211 



3 44 

4 5 



6 12 
6 33 

6 54 

7 15 



7 36 

7 56 

8 17 
8 37 

8 58 

9 18 
9 37 
9 57 



Moon 
South 
H.M. 



25 
19 
14 
0 
7 
2 
56 
46 

8 34 

9 19 
10 1 

10 42 

11 23 
Morn 

0 3 
0 44 



27 
12 
1 
52 
47 
43 



6 40 

7 36 

8 30 



H.Wat'r 



o 

I 

I 



5 9 
3 35 

7 39 

8 28 

9 10 
9 45 

10 21 

10 55 

11 37 
Aft 13 

1 



9 18 
9 50 
10 53 

10 56 

11 30 
Morn 

0 16 

1 0 
1 57 
4 39 
6 8 



Moon Rises and Sets. 



1 10 

2 27 

3 49 
Sets, 

6 43 

7 11 

7 43 

8 16 

8 45 

9 42 



19 

38 Moi 



II 31 

rn 

2a 

33 



54 
2 

6 55 

7 36 

8 12 
8 46 Rises 



6 50 

7 24 

8 0 

8 50 

9 47 
10 53 
Morn 

0 10 

1 22 



1 15 

2 31 

3 51 
Sets. 

6 43 

7 12 

7 45 

8 20 
8 50 
9 



18 10 



16 10 33 10 39 11 



11 37 
Morn 

0 27 

1 36 

2 36 

3 35 

4 32 
Rises. 

6 0 
6 28 

6 52 

7 28 

8 5 

8 56 

9 53 
10 59 
.Morn 

0 14 

1 25 



1 36 

2 48 
4 2 
Sets. 

6 43 

7 18 

7 57 

8 37 

9 10 
12 

4 

Morn 
0 1 

0 45 

1 50 

2 46 

3 38 

4 33 
Rises. 

6 3 

6 36 

7 2 

7 45 

8 25 

9 20 

10 28 

11 24 
Morn 

0 32 

1 39 



boon — two ideas, whore but one was before. No ! Of him it 
may be said, of all men, he is the most illy requited. Yet, 
noble laborer, thank God! your calling is high and holy; your 
|m(- is the property of Nations, and your renown will fill 



1842. 



OCTOBER. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



New Moon, 4 1 

First Quarter, 11 1 

19 6 

26 7 



Full Moon, 
Last Quarter, 



M. 

27 M. 
44 M. 
16 M. 
44 A. 



Sa 

s 

M 
4Tu 
W 
6Th 
/ Fr 
8Sa 

s 

10M 



11 



16 



25 



27 



12 W 

13 Th 

14 Fr 

15 Sa 



s 



17 M 



21 Fr 

22 Sa 
23 
24 M 



Tu 



26 W 



Th 



28 Fr 

29 Sa 



Sun 

Rises. 



56 
57 
58 
59 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
24 
25 
26 
27 
26 



Sun 

Sets. 



43 
42 
41 
39 
3^ 
37 
35 
34 
32 
31 
29 
28 
26 
25 
23 
22 
20 
18 
17 
15 
14 
12 
II 
10 
8 
7 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



Sun t 
Decl. 



3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 

10 
10 

11 
11 
11 

12 
12 



3010 
5410 



40 



311 
2612 
4912 



24 



12 44 

13 5 
13 
13 
14 



Sun 

Fast. 



10 



11 



1 

35 
S3 
1 12 
30 
47 
4 
21 
37 
53 
5813 9 
2013 24 
4313 38 

13 52 
6 

14 19 
1214 31 
3414 43 

15 
15 



28 14 

50 



39 15 
0 

21 
43 



54 
5 
15 
15 24 
15 32 
15 40 



15 
15 
16 
16 
25 16 
45 16 



16 



Moon 
South 



9 23 

10 15 

11 9 
11 54 
Aft 59 



55 
54 
52 
48 
41 
30 
17 
59 
41 
21 
1 



10 43 

11 25 
Morn 

0 10 

0 58 

1 40 

2 42 

3 38 

4 33 

5 28 

6 22 

7 14 

8 5 

8 56 

9 47 



H Wat'r 



o 

i 

CD 



6 

7 

8 

8 

U 
10 
10 

11 

Aft 
1 
1 
2 
4 
5 
6 
6 
7 
8 
8 
9 
9 

10 

11 



15 

33 
31 
17 

Morn 

0 5 



6 42 



Moon Rises and Sets. 



2 40 

3 54 

5 0 
Sets. 

6 14 

6 49 

7 34 

8 23 

9 19 



11 22 



59 Morn 



32 
27 
23 
24 
6 
22 



48 Rises. 



24 
24 
50 
41 
46 
57 



o 

I 

o 

sz 



2 41 

3 54 

5 8 
Sets. 

6 17 

6 53 

7 39 

8 29 

9 25 



10 2110 26 



11 26 
Morn 
0 34 



28 
23 
24 
5 
20 



37 Morn 



0 19 

1 35 

2 45 

3 38 



Rises. 
5 30 

5 58 

6 55 

7 47 

8 52 
10 2 



911 13 



Morn 

0 22 

1 36 

2 45 

3 37 



2 49 

3 58 

5 6 
Sets. 

6 31 

7 1 

8 2 

8 54 

9 50 

10 49 

11 45 
Morn 



Rises. 

5 41 

6 17 

7 18 

8 11 

9 1 

10 25 

11 32 
Morn 

0 37 

1 43 

2 45 

3 32 



the earth in 
day. Yours 



after a£ 
will be 



is, as 
that 



it sounds not far off, in your own 
humble, but not inglorious epitaph, 



commemorating " one, 
man an enemy." 



in whom mankind lost a friend, but no 



1S42. 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. 

• New Moon, 8 11 11 M. 

D First Quarter, 9 8 16 A. 

O Full Moon, 17 10 30 A. 

a Last Quarter, 25 4 3 M. 



1 Tu 

2W 

3Th 

4Fr 

5Sa 

68 

7xM 

&Tu 

9 W 

10 Th 

11 Fr 

12 Sa 
13S 

14 M 

15 Tu 

16 W 

17 Th 

18 Fr 
l9Sa 

20 S 

21 M 

22 Tu 

23 W 

24 Th 

25 Fr 

26 Sa 

27 S 

28 M 

29 Tu 

30 W 



Sun 
Rises 
H.M 



6 29 
6 30 
6 31 
6 32 
34 
35 
36 
38 



Sun 
Sets. 
H.M. 



6 39 
6 40 
6 42 
6 43 
44 
46 
47 
48 



6 49 
6 50 
6 51 



6 54 
6 55 
56 
57 
68 
59 
li 
1 
3 
4 



59 14 



58 



57 15 
56 15 
55 15 
54 15 



'Sun' 
Dec! 
D.M 



14 



24 
43 
2 
21 



39 16 15 



57 



47 17 24 



4418 
4318 
4318 
41 18 
4019 
3919 
3919 
3819 
37 20 
36 20 
36 20 
35 20 
34 20 
34 21 
33 21 
33 21 
33 21 



Sun 
Fast 
M.S. 



16 16 
16 17 
16 17 
16 17 



16 13 



1516 10 



33 16 
5016 
715 55 
15 49 



Moon 
South 
H. M. 



4015 41 



15 33 
15 24 
2815 15 
43 15 4 
5r 14 53 
13 14 40 
27 14 27 



41 



14 13 



54 13 59 
13 43 
2013 27 
3213 9 
4412 51 
5612 33 
712 13 
1811 53 
2811 32 
38 11 10 



10 42 

11 34 
Aft 36 

1 36 

2 34 

3 29 

4 22 

5 10 
| 5 55 

6 37 

7 18 

7 58 

8 38 

9 21 
10 5 

10 54 

11 43 
Morn 

0 37 



33 
29 
24 
18 
10 
1 



6 50 

7 39 

8 30 

9 24 
10 20 



H.WaVn Moon Rises and Sets 



O 
i 

H.M 

7 38 

8 23 

8 45 

9 48 

10 29 

11 10 
11 52 
Aft 37 



u 

09 
Ed 

H 



7 42 

8 25 

9 4 
9 46 

10 26 

11 5 
11 48 
Morn 

0 3011 24 

1 16 Morn 



2 14 

3 25 

4 41 

6 8 

7 12 



5 14 
Sets. 

5 21 

6 11 

7 5 

8 5 

9 11 
8 12 

11 13 
Morn 

0 16 

1 16 

2 10 

3 9 

4 12 

5 16 

6 23 
Rises. 

5 38 

6 37 

7 49 

8 53 
10 48 



5 12 
Sets. 

5 26 

6 17 

7 11 

8 10 

9 16 

10 16 

11 16 
iVlorn 

0 16 

1 15 

2 9 



0 36 

1 42 

2 55 

4 14 

5 26 



Rises. 

5 42 

6 42 

7 53 

8 58 

10 52 

11 26 
Morn 

0 36 

1 42 

2 53 

4 11 

5 22 



5 1 
Sets. 

5 37 

6 41 

7 36 

8 33 

9 36 

10 33 

11 29 
Morn 

0 19 

1 15 

2 5 

2 53 

3 55 

4 54 

5 47 
Rises. 

5 58 

6 47 

8 27 

9 18 
11 9 
11 21 
Morn 

0 36 

1 39 

2 44 

3 56 
5 34 



A CIVIL LUNATIC. 

To see a man, on the fourth of July, boasting of his freedom, 
i^>rating the birth day of his independence, and yet know 



1842. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES 


. D. 


H. 


M. 




® New Moon, 


1 


11 


18 


A. 


D First Quarter, 


9 


5 


28 


A. 


O Full Moon, 


17 


1 


50 


A. 


d Last Quarter, 


24 


11 


49 


M. 


© New Moon, 


31 


2 


6 


A. 



Tl 



2Fr 

3Sa 

s 

M 
6Tu 
W 
Th 



7 

8 
9Fr 
10 Sa 



8 

M 
Tu 



14 W 

15 T\ 



16 



Fr 



17 Sa 

18 S 



21 1 W 

22 Th 

23 Fr 



27 T 



28 



VV 



29 Tb 
Fr 

Sa 



Sun 
Rises. 



5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
16 
17 
17 
lb 
18 
18 
19 
20 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
33 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 



Sun 
Sets. 



Sun's 
Decl. 

44 21~l8 



10 48 
34 21 5710 25 



4 

4 40 
4 41 
4 42 



3422 610 
14 
22 
30 
37 
43 
49 
55 
0 
5 
9 
13 
23 17 
19 
22 
24 
25 
26 
27 
27 
27 
26 
25 

8 23 23 
21 

40 23 18 
23 15 
23 11 
23 7 



33 22 
33 22 
33 22 
33 22 
33 22 
33 22 
33 22 
33 23 
33 23 

33 23 

34 23 
34 
34 23 
34 23 

34 23 

35 23 

36 23 

36 23 

37 23 

37 23 

38 23 

38 23 
31 

39 23 



Sun 
Fast. 



1 

9 37 
9 12 
8 47 
8 21 
7 55 
7 28 
7 1 
6 33 
6 5 



Moon 
South 



11 17 
Aft 17 
1 14 



9 
0 
48 
31 
13 
54 

6 34 

7 15 

7 58 

8 44 

9 33 
10 26 

lllll 22 
41 Morn 



2 12 
1 42 
1 12 
0 42 
Slow. 
0 17 
0 46 



0 19 

1 17 



16 
46| 
15 
45 
14 



12 
6 
58 
49 
37 



6 26 

7 17 
11 

7 
4 
2 
55 



H.Wat'r Moon Rises and Sets. 



8 4 

8 55 

9 34 
10 13 

10 52 

11 30 
Aft 11 

0 
1 

2 13 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
8 

9 33 
10 16 

10 53 

11 33 
Morn 

0 11 
0 57 



7 
8 
10 
4911 



Sets 

4 56 

5 49 

6 54 
57 
58 

1 
2 

29 Morn 
0 1 

0 57 

1 57 

3 0 

4 4 

5 11 

6 14 
50 Rises. 

5 36 

6 45 

7 51 
9 13 

10 2/ 
11 

Morn 
0 43 
1 
3 
4 
5 



59 
13 
22 
29 



6 27 



7 15 



Sets. 

4 58 

5 55 

6 59 



Morn 
0 1 

0 56 

1 55 

2 57 

3 59 

5 6 

6 8 
Rises. 

5 41 

6 50 

7 55 
9 16 

10 28 
53 11 33 
Morn 
0 42 
1 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



93 

.si 
O 



56 
9 
17 
23 
21 
10 



Sets. 

5 13 

6 19 

7 20 

8 23 

9 16 

10 4 

11 8 
11 59 
Morn 

0 59 

1 43 

2 41 

3 39 

4 43 

5 44 
Rises. 

6 5 

7 10 

8 13 

9 29 

10 36 

11 34 
Morn 

0 35 

1 43 

2 41 

3 56 

4 59 

5 57 

6 47 



him to be debased and brutalized by ignorance, with fetters on his 
soul and a padlock on his lips, is to have before us, what is too 
often seen, a civil lunatic. 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



15 



PEOPLE'S COLLEGE. 
From those who learn to read in the United States, nineteen out of 
twenty receive all their instruction in the Common Schools. — 
Hence, as is the Common School, so is the education of this people. 
In our Common Schools is spread the public table of knowledge, 
where are daily fed the youth of the nation. These schools are the 
sources of the nation's intelligence ; they are the Guardians of lib- 
erty, each house being a Sentinel of freedom. 



TO FARMERS. 
The soil does not produce according to its natural richness, but 
according to the intellig ence that works it. Therefore, the best manure 
farmers can obtain, is a good school for the district where their children 
are to receive the entire education. A good school will make the 
rich soil a blessing, and the barren one productive. 



TO RICH BACHELORS. 
Taxes for the support of schools, are like vapors which rise only to 
descend again, to beautify and fertilize the earth. Education is the 
great Insurance Company which insures all other insurance compa- 
nies. No one is so high as not to need the education of the people 
as a safeguard; no one is so low as to be beneath its uplifting power. 
The safety of life and the security of property, lie in the virtue and 
intelligence of the people ; for what force has law, unless there is 
intelligence to perceive its justice, and virtue to which that law can 
appeal. 



TO DEMAGOGUES. 
Would you not like a half educated people? Taught just enough 
to read what you say, but not enough to know whether it be true or 
not. There is good encouragement for you in neglected common 
£jhools. 



16 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE AGE. * 

It was said by a wit of a former age, that "worth meant wealth, and 
wisdom, the art of getting it." This burning satire will apply equally 
well to our own times, for to be rich is accounted a merit, to be poor 
an offence. A false standard of merit is thus erected, by which it is 
less important to be wise and virtuous, than to be rich. Hence each 
thing is labelled with its price, and every thing is bought and sold. 
We coin our hearts into gold, and trade our souls for gain. 

The estimatian we give to wealth may be seen by the smiple phrase 
that " a man is said to be worth so much — worth just so much as his 
money amounts to, and no more. The term gain, is not applied to 
knowledge, virtue, or happiness : it is used solely to mark pecuniary 
acquisitions ; it is synonymous with gold, as if nothing but gold were 
gain, and every thing else were loss. 

And this becomes so insensibly. To live here is to live in the 
Temple of Mammon ; and it is impossible to see this god so devoutly 
worshipped daily — to behold this reverence of the multitude — to stand 
in the presence of the Idol, and not catch the contagion of awe, and 
yield to the magic sorcery of wealth. 

The very prevalence of this evil, forms its powerful protection and 
plea ; for the " multitude never blush and ah ! what strength in 
" the solemn plausibilities of custom." 

And what resistance to all this do we make ? A faint sigh, perhaps, 
a hurried, heartless prayer, an occasional struggle, so impotent as to 
invite defeat. 

" But what is life thus spent 1 and what are they 
But frantic, who thus spend itV* 

The soul twice lost; first starved and dwarfed on earth, then doomed 
hereafter. 

But this love of money can be cured only by the expulsive power 
of a new affection. If we would not have the ivy to creep on the 
ground, we must erect an object for it to embrace, and by embracing, 
ascend; and if we would detach the heart from embracing the dust, 
we must give to it another and a nobler object. True culture must 
show it, that 



* See " Mammon," by Harris, 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



IT 



u The only amaranthine flower on earth 
Is virtue ; t he only lasting treasure, truth." 

And that 

" Religion ! she is the joy of man ; his better wealth 
The richest !" 

We know fall well, however, that the sensual, trafficking spirit of 
this age will cry out, as Macbeth did to the ghost of Banquo, " Take 
any shape but that." The times would inquire with the man who, 
after hearing a great poem praised, asked, 84 If it would make bread 
cheaper !" The age would be satisfied with King Henry the Fourth, 
"if each peasant had a chicken in his pot." 

Yes, every thing is for physical well being. The body is Dives, 
clothed in purple, fareing sumptuously three times a day : while the 
mind is Lazarus, lying in rags at the gate, and fed only with the crumbs 
which fall from the sensual table. 



WHAT IS EDUCATION? 
The education required for the people is that which will give them 
the full command of every faculty, both of mind and body ; which will 
call out their powers of observation and reflection ; which will change 
mere creatures of impulse, prejudice, and passion, to thinking, loving, 
and reasoning men. An education that will lead to objects of pursuit 
und habits of conduct favorable to the happiness of each individual, 
and to the community. An education that will multiply the means ot 
moral enjoyment, and diminish the temptations of vice and sensuality. 



BIBLE AND COMMON SCHOOLS. 
If we wish to secure the triumph of the Bible, we must begin by 
securing the triumph of Common Schools. The Rev. Dr. Durf, Mis- 
sionary to India, told the General Assembly that, from a want of know- 
ledge and science, the Hindoos were not capable of estimating the 
evidence of the Gospel, which to their dark, feeble minds, appeared like 
an old wife's fabie. Dr. Duff proposed that the Board of Missions 
^Kjuld give to the Hindoos instruction in the various branches of a 



l 



IS 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



common education, that their minds might be able to see the truth and 
importance of the Scriptures. 

Before the sower goes forth to sow his seed, the ground must be pre- 
pared. Common Schools must plough for the Bible. The seed will 
not take root if the ground be not ploughed ; neither Can the Bible be 
understood if Common Schools have not gone before it. 

The Bible, then, that charter of liberty — the Magna Charta of a 
world's freedom — "shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehend- 
ed it not" if Common Schools are neglected. And to the Clergy we 
would say, to show the influence which the Bible must have in the 
schools, and the necessity, too, of general instruction 

If the children of your congregation grow up in ignorance ; encased 
in prejudice as in impenetrable armor, obedient to appetite, without 
that clearness of intellect which shall enable them to discern between 
truth and error — between realities and illusions, — without a vigilant 
and authoritative conscience, — without an abiding conviction that there 
can be nothing worthy the name of happiness, which is not founded 
upon truth ; then, when these children are transferred from the benches 
of the school-room to the pews of the meeting-house, you may preach 
to them with the wisdom and the fervency of an Apostle, and the 
chance is that it will be only as sounding brass or a tinkling symbol. 
How small the probability in such cases, that even the shafts of Divine 
truth will be able to penetrate the iron mail of prejudice and sensual- 
ism ! How philosophically, as well as spiritually true, is that simili- 
tude in the parable of the sower — "It withered away, because it had no 
depth of earth !" If there be not an enlightened intellect, a vivid 
conscience, an habitual reverence for sacred things, the seed which is 
sown will fall on "stony ground" and there is infinite danger, even if 
it spring up, that, under the first heat of temptation, it will "wither 
away." 



OPENING OF FALL SCHOOLS. 

During the months of September and October the parents begin to 
send the older children to school. This is a good season of the year 
to make a change for the better, and we will with great earnestness 
and sincerity take the liberty of asking the School Districts a few 
plain practical questions : 

1st. Can you expend money in any other way so wisely as in giving 
your children a good education ? 

What so essential to your happiness as virtue and intelligence^n 
those arouud you ? 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



19 



Of all men, who should be more virtuous and intelligent than that 
man who educates and forms the character of your children ? 

Will any thing but a higher salary secure higher qualifications? 

If a well educated teacher saves school books, and above all, your 
children's time, by advancing them faster and more correctly in their 
studies, can you not afford to pay him more ? 

2dly. What is the condition of your school-house? 

Are the windows filled with glass ? 

Are the clap-boards falling oft'? 

Are the doors thrown off from the hinges ? 

Is the stove or the pipe out of order ? 

Are the school desks of the right construction ? Have they back 
pieces ? Are they cut full of holes and ridges with the penknife ? 

Does the school house leak rain and admit the wind ? 

Have you a wood house, well filled with wood, and large enough for 
the children to exercise in during bad weather ? 

Is this building located in a good place 1 

3dly. What school books do you use ? 

4thly. Can you not elect school officers who are competent, and will 
be faithful to the interests of the school? 

5thly. Can you not keep your children move steadily at school ? 

Shall they this winter go to school one day, and stay at home the 
next ? 

Can you not give them more than two or three months schooling, 
during the whole fall and winter ? 

6thly. Will you not endeavor to visit the school once a week this 
winter, and take a suitable interest in your teacher and his instruc- 
tions ? 

Will you not try to co-operate with him out of school, and in 
school ? 

Finally, will you not resolve, when the fall school is opened, to start 
anew on this momentous subject? Will you not begin then to give 
this subject more aid, more attention, than you have done? 



TO TEACHERS. 

1. Are you qualified for your arduous, difficult and responsible stn 
tion ? 

2. Have you soberly and frequently considered the important duties 
of a teacher ? 

3. Do you love your business ? 

4. Do you intend to make teaching a profession, or merely a tem- 

«rary thing, to be laughed at and dismissed as soon as something more 
Arable shall offer ? 



'20 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



5. Can you sympathize with children ? 

6. Can you look into the operations of the young intellect, and. see 
how it thinks and how to make it think? 

7. Is it your daily and nightly study to excel in your business ? 

8. Are you endeavoring to make teaching a distinct profession, as 
well rewarded and as honorable as law or physic, or divinity ? 

9. Does your library contain all the works, volumes, periodicals, 
&c. &c. that have been published, to assist you in the art of teaching? 

10. Are you in manners, in habits, in principles, a good model for 
your pupils ? 

11. Do you make your school pleasant ? 

12. Do you make your scholars understand what they study? 

13. Do you make them apply their knowledge to the practical busi- 
ness of life ? 

14. Have you introduced such books as teach the labors and duties 
of manhood: — such as agricultural, mechanical, civil, &c. 

15. Are you faithful to such parents as are indifferent to their chil- 
dren's education ? 

16. Do you daily examine your government in school ? Could this 
not be improved ? 

17. Can you not, by talking, by going from house to house, by giv- 
ing lectures, by introducing improved school books, and a school li- 
brary, by communications to the press, and by every possible judicious 
way, do something to elevate the character of the district, and the use- 
fulness of the school? 



HOW TO BECOME RICH. 

How is a nation to grow rich and powerful ? Every one will answer, 
by cultivating and making productive what nature has given them. 
So long as their lands remain uncultivated, no matter how rich by na- 
ture, they are still no source of wealth ; but when they bestow labor 
upon them, and begin to plough and sow the fertile earth, they then 
become a source of profit. Now, is it not precisely the same case 
with the natural powers of mind ? So long as they remain uncultiva- 
ted, are they not valueless? Nature gives it is true, to the mind 
talent, but she does not give learning or skill ; just as she gives to the 
so\\ fertility, but not wheat or corn. In both cases the labor of man 
must make them productive. Now, this labor applied to the mind, is 
what we call education, a word derived from the Latin, which means 
the educing or bringing forth the hidden powers of that to which it is 
applied. In the same sense also, we use the word cultivation : we say, 
(i cultivate the mind," just as we say, u cultivate the soil." 

From ail this, we conclude that a nation has two natural sourco^oi 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



21 



{wealth : one, the soil of the nation, and the other, the mind of the na- 
tion. So long as these remain uncultivated, they add little or nothing 
to wealth or power. Agriculture makes the one productive, education 
rjthe other. Brought under cultivation, the soil brings forth wheat and 
corn and good grass, while the weeds and briars and poisonous plants 
Jare all rooted out ; so mind brought under cultivation, brings forth 
iskill, and learning, and sound knowledge, and good principles ; while 
lignorance, and prejudice, and bad passions, and evil habits, which are 
the weeds and briars and poisonous plants of the mind, are rooted out 
and destroyed. — Dr. McVickar. 



TO PROMINENT CITIZENS. 

Men of wealth, men of learning, pour instruction upon the heads 
of the people — you owe them that baptism. Look at that boy in the 
gutter ! hatless, shoeless, and almost shirtless, he is a part of our king, 
a part of our sovereignty. Should he not receive a sovereign's edu- 
cation ? Should he not be prepared for the Throne our institutions 
have given him ? There is a gem in every human form ; let the dia- 
mond be polished, and it will shine in truth and beauty. There is still 
in the most debased "a beam etherial, though sullied and dishonored, 
still divine." And our motto should be — Teach and habituate the 
people to make a right use of the faculties which God has given them, 
and then trust them fearlessly to themselves. Give democracies edu- 
cation, and freedom of action, and then " let them alone." 

Says Bishop Doane, "the Common School should be common, not 
!as inferior, not as the school for poor men's children, but as the light 
land the air are common." 

" We utterly repudiate, as unworthy, not of freemen only, but of 
men, the narrow notion, that there is to be an education for tfee poor 

I as such. Has God provided for the poor a coarser earth, a thinner 
air, a paler sky? Does not the glorious sun pour down his golden 
flood as cheerily upon the poor man's hovel, as upon the rich man's 

i palace ? Have not the cotter's children as keen a sense of all the 
freshness, verdure, fragrance, melody, and beauty of luxuriant nature, 
as the pale sons of kings ? Or is it on the mind that God has stamped 
the imprint of a baser birth, so that the poor man's child knows, with 
an inborn certainty, that his lot is to crawl, not climb ? 

"It is not so. God has not done it. Man cannot do it. Mind is 
immortal. Mind is imperial. It bears no mark of high or low, of 
iwh or poor. It heeds no bound of time or place, of rank or circum- 



22 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



stance. It asks but freedom. It requires but light. It is heaven 
born, and it aspires to heaven. Weakness does not enfeeble it. Pov- 
erty cannot repress it. Difficulties do but stimulate its vigor. And 
the poor tallow-chandler's son, that sits up all the night to read the 
book which an apprentice lends him, lest the master's eye should miss 
it in the marning, shall stand and treat with kings, shall add new pro- 
vinces to the domain of science, shall bind the lightning with a hempen 
cord, and bring it harmless from the skies. ? 

Says Thomas Carlyle, (quoted from memory,) (i It is not because of 
the low toils that I plead for the poor ; we must all toil ; and the strug- 
gle with the dense brain is of all labor the most consuming. For the 
laboring poor, hungry and athirst, there is food and drink — for the 
weary and heavy-laden, the heavens send sleep the deepest and the 
sweetest. 

No ! as a laborer, I plead not for him ; but I do mourn that the lamp 
of his soul should go out — that no bright visions should visit him ; and 
that his mind through the whole of life should be rilled with two great 
spectres — fear and indignation. Oh ! that one man should die igno- 
rant, who had a capacity for knowledge, should make us all weep." 

In a recent interview with a young clergyman, settled in a country 
village, who has several small children, he declared, that after a deep 
consideration of the subject, after an examination of all those argu- 
ments by which men so often flatter themselves, that they have done 
their duty, when they have only subseived their interest or consulted 
their convenience, he had come to the conclusion, that it was his duty 
to send his children to the common district school of the village. M If," 
said he, " I am really one of my church and of my people, then the 
school which I assist in providing for their children, is as good for 
mine as for them. I shall not be so likely to watch over the school, to 
exert myself for its advancement, to look after the manners of the chil- 
dren, to cultivate their good affections, to preserve them from bad 
habits, from the vices of lying, profanity, obscenity, if my own chil- 
dren are not among them. Such is human nature, that I dare not trust 
my own ability to perform my duty, if I set my own interest in oppo- 
sition to theirs, or sever the connexion between them." 



AMERICAN PROTECTION. 

" Education," said Edmund Burke, " is the cheap defence of Na 
tions." 4 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



23 



VOCAL MUSIC IN SCHOOLS. 
Vocal Music should be taught in every elementary school ; and al- 
nost every one may learn it, for it is as common to find a deaf and 
Plumb child, as to find one that is not capable of being taught to sing, 
t is a German proverb that " Music is the gymnastic of the affec- 
ions." It developes and strengthens them. And an old German 
eacher was once heard to say that " whenever his school commenced 
kinging, the devil always went out doors and began to growl." The 
;iighest and purest morality may be taught through music, when the 
hardened mind seems closed to all other means ; for we can sing things 
nto men, that we cannot talk into them. 



RICH AND POOR. 
The district school ought to be elevated till it is good enough to edu- 
cate the rich man's child, and then it will be good enough to educate 
;very child in the district. In this republican government, there should 
be no distinctions. Every child, whether poor or rich, should have a 
fair start in the world as far as an education, which fits us for our 
sailings, may go. The rich child should not be taught, almost the first 
thing, by a select school, to look upon his neighbor's children as born to 
fewer advantages ; he should be taught — by being sent to school du- 
ring the first years, with the child of want — that all in this land have 
" 'equal claims for an education which will fit them for the duties of free- 
imen. 

Private schools destroy the common schools. By taking the chil- 
dren from the public schools — schools established by the state, that all, 
however poor, may be educated — we make them weak and disrespected. 
The rich man and the professional man have property, and life, and 
freedom, to secure and guard, and nothing will defend these dear rights 
but virtue and intelligence. All, then, are interested in the common 
school system, for this system, and this only, can carry knowledge and 
virtue to every child. The poor, even if they felt the disposition, can- 
not support private schools, and they must look to the state for assist- 
ance. But this aid they will not seek so long as it is not respected. 

We say then, again, let the common school be made jit to educate all, 
and let all send to it. This alone will secure an educatiou for every 
one, and this is republican. More than all — this is duty. If the rich 
and poor would unite their efforts, and numbers, and wealth, and intel- 
ligence, the common school might be made an academy in advantages. 
Parents need not send their children from home to secure a good 
school ; a good school may be made in every neighborhood. We hope 
tliAsubject will be duly considered. 



24 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



A COMMON ERROR. 

A teacher cannot learn for the pupil, any more than he can eat for 
him. Yet the teachers that I have met with, excepting a very few, 
seem to think that they can make acquirements for the child. As this 
cannot be done, teachers often labour with pupils to little purpose. 

The office of a teacher is, not to teach, but to assist the child in its 
efforts to teach itself. Self-education is the best education, and the 
teacher should so prepare and assist the youthful mind, that will desire 
and be able to educate itself. 

For example, when a pupil asks a question, the teacher, instead of 
answering it at length, should ask such other questions, that the child 
will he able to answer its own question. In this way the pupil may 
make that which he already knows, assist him in acquiring what is 
unknown. 

When a child is reading, and meets with a long word it cannot call, 
the teacher should not, as is the general practice, pronounce the word 
for the child, but he should make the child spell and pronounce the 
syllables of the word, and by this means, let the child master the word 
for itself. 

During recitations, the teacher should not repeat half the lesson for 
the child, but leave the pupil to depend upon his own powers to carry 
the lesson through. 

We learn too much for children as well as legislate too much 
for the people. And as legislators should encourage the people to act, 
but leave this action free ; so teachers should excite their pupils to 
effort, but leave that effort to instruct. 



THE SOCIAL PYRAMID. 
All our readers must have seen or heard of those strolling companies 
of tumblers, rope-dancers or balance masters, who, among other feats, 
build human pyramids. Four stand side by side in a row ; three more 
mount up and stand upon their shoulders ; two others over-climb these 
and make a third tier ; another ascends aloft, some twenty feet, and, 
poising himself on the topmost shoulders, makes the apex of the pyra- 
mid. This represents the structure of despotic governments exactly. 
While those above can put out the e3^es of those below whenever they 
look upward, and can beat them (with a long pole, commonly called a 
sceptre,) into due subjection, things go on very well. But when those 
below discover how the great and equal law of gravitation bears upon 
the upper strata, and begin to execute certain well-concerted jostlings, 
adapted to topple down their highnesses, then, from having the farthest 
to fall, they find themselves to be the most exposed part of society ; 
and if not utterly bereft of reason, they will pray Heaven above an\ 



THE COMMON SCIiOOL ALMANAC. 



25 



(heir underlings below to let them get down as safely and as fast as 
they can. Descended to a common platform, they find their own best 
welfare dependant upon the common good ; and that, if they would 
attain superiority, it must be that noble superiority, which arises from 
higher character and more beneficent conduct. Thus is the condition 
of our society, and this the law by which the individual welfare of its 
members is governed. — Boston Common School Journal. 



ONLY A COMMON EDUCATION. 

Many years ago, in an obscure country school in Massachusetts, an 
humble, conscientious, but industrious boy was to be seen, and it was 
evident to all that his soul was beginning to act and thirst for some 
intellectual good. He was alive to knowledge. Next we see him an 
apprentice on the shoemaker's bench, with a book spread open before 
him. Next we see him put forth, on foot, to settle in a remote town 
in this State, and pursue his fortunes there as a shoemaker, his tools 
being carefully sent on their way before him. In a short time he is 
busied in the post of county-surveyor for Litchfield county, being the 
most accomplished mathematician in that section of the State. Be- 
fore he is twenty-five years old, we find him supplying the astronomical 
matter of an almanac, published in New-York. Next he is admitted 
to the bar, a self-qualified lawyer. Now he is found on the bench of 
the Superior Court. Next he becomes a member of the Continental 
Congress. There he is made a member of the committee of six to 
prepare the Declaration of Independence. He continues a member of 
Congress for nearly twenty years, and is acknowledged to be one of 
the most useful- men and wisest counsellors of the land. At length, 
having discharged every office with a perfect ability, and honored, in 
every sphere the name of a Christian, he dies regretted and loved by 
his State and Nation. Now this Roger Sherman, I maintain, was an 
educated man. Do you ask for other examples ? I name, then, Wash- 
ington, who had only a common domestic education. I name Frank- 
lin ; I name Rittenhouse ; I name West ; I name Fulton ; I name 
Bowditch ; — all Common School men, and some of them scarcely that, 
but yet all educated men. 

Robert Burns was a plough-boy. 
Ben Johnson a bricklayer, until 30 years of age. 
Milton was, at 28 years of age, a Street Inspector. 
Shakspeare was a wool stapler's boy, with scarcely a common edu- 
cation. 
£irgil was a porter 



20 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



Franklin a maker of candles, and an apprentice boy. 
Demosthenes a cutler. 
Columbus a weaver. 

Daniel Webster a farmer boy, and a free school scholar. 



SOFTLY IN THE EAR OF A PARENT. 

As is the teacher so is the school ; and as is the pay f so is the 
teacher. 



TO PARENTS. 

Would a farmer take a favourite horse to a cheap blacksmith to be 
shod that a penny or two might be saved? No. For he says, "the 
nail may be so driven into the foot as to make it lame, and I may lose 
my horse. I had rather pay a few cents more, than run the risk of 
losing my noble Charlie. 11 

Two teachers apply for the school in the district of this farmer. 
One is ignorant, but offers to teach for $10 per month; the other is 
experienced, and asks $30 per month. The farmer weighs the soul 
of the child against money, and the $10 man is employed. That the 
young mind is a more delicate thing to handle than a horse's foot is 
not perceived ; and that the child is much more easily ruined by want 
of skill is never dreamed of. 

A farmer sits in his door and sees a stranger coming in through the 
gate. The traveller approaches and asks the farmer if he does not 
want " to hire a hand.'* The farmer answers, Yes, if I can find one 
to suit me." And then he puts the following questions to the stran- 
ger : — '* Can you drive a team ? Can you mow ? Can you chop ? 
Can you cradle?" &c. &c. He is chatechised most thoroughly. 

Immediately after, another stranger approaches and asks him if 
" his school does not want to hire a teacher." The only question 
which the farmer now asks, is—-" How much do you ask a month, 
sir ?" We ask the reader to remark the difference in the examination 
of the two applicants. 

Again, the parent will either work with the hired man all day, or 
direct his son to do so, to prevent the labour from slighting his work, 
or from wasting a moment's time. Or he will get his neighbour to 
peep over the fence occasionally, to see that the hired man does not 
sit down on the plough too often. But the same watchful parent will 
put a man over his children in the school house, aud never go near him 
for years ! ! 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



27 



Again parents will labour hard and live sparingly all their lives, to 
»ive their children a "start" in the world, as it is called. But setting 
i young man afloat with money left him, is like tying bladders under 
the arms of one who cannot swim. Ten chances to one that he will 
lose his bladders and go to the bottom. Teach him to sionn, and he 
j will never need the bladders. Give a child a sound education, and you 
jiave done enough for him. You have then given him a " start" that 
Will ensure happiness and victory in the race. 

" A good education is a young man's best capital," was truly and 
beautifully said by Miss Sedgwick. And farmers, listen to Governor 
[Everett. 

" Husbandmen, sow the seed of instruction in your sons' and daugh- 
ters' minds. It will grow up and bear fruit, though the driving storms 
scatter the blossoms of spring. Plant the germ of truth in the infant 
Understandings of your children — save — stint — spare — scrape — do any 
|;hing but steal — in order to nourish that growth ; and it is little to say 
!;hat it will flourish when your grave stones, crumbled into dust, shall 
ningle with the dust they covered ; — it will flourish when that over- 
iirching heaven shall pass away like a scroll, and the eternal sun which 
ightens it, shall set in blood." 

If a blacksmith should put up the sign, "Watches mended cheap" 
vould you take your gold lever to him ? If you should, the quack, 
laving heard that the silversmith rubbed, and pinched, and hammered 
he watch, would take your watch and rub it, and pinch it. But would 
t keep time ? It is so with the cheap teacher ; he takes the children, 
" ind rubs, and pinches, and hammers them — hut do they keep time ? 

If a parent could stand on the shore of the Atlantic, and with one 
>low knock out all the light-houses, would he not be accountable for 
jill the shipwrecks made during that darkness ? And if the parent, 
hrough avarice or negligence, withholds from his child the light of 
ruth, is he not responsible for the crimes that child may commit ? 

I have always admired that law of the Icelanders, which makes the 
-ourt enquire, when a child is accused, whether the parents have given 
he offender a good education. And if not, the court inflicts the pun- 
shment on the parents. 

" From the Massachusetts Colony Laws of 1646. chap. 18. " If any 
;hild or children, above sixteen years old, and of sufficient understand- 
ng, shall curse or smite their natural father or mother, he or they 
hall be put to death, unless it can be shown that the parents have been 

ERY UNCHRISTIANLY NEGLIGENT IN THE EDUCATION OF SUCH CHIL- 
)REN. 

" A parent that keeps his child from school that there may be an im- 
a^jate gain of a few cents, acts as wisely as the Maine Farmer who 



28 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



dug up his seed potatoes for his table, the week after they were plant- 
ed — such parents "hate to give long credits." 

"Parents should frequently visit the school. If they could but re- 
alize how full of fears and misgivings the teacher often is, how lone- 
ly and unsustained he is apt to feel, and how much they can do to 
lighten the heavy burden of his difficult and perplexing duties by a 
kind suggestion, or a judicious word of commendation ; how much a 
generous expression of confidence will quicken his feelings of respon- 
sibility, elevate his sense of character, and stimulate him to increased 
diligence — and how completely, on the other hand, a little unreasona- 
ble complaint very easy to utter, will thwart his best efforts, and ne- 
glect and distrust discourage his well-meant exertions — instead of 
meeting him with reserve, and watching his faults with jealousy, they 
would welcome him as a fellow labourer, cheer him by their confi- 
dence, sustain his authority by their countenance, admit him into 
their families, and show him they are his friends." 

" But should any one be disposed to visit the school too frequently — 
to make the school house a lounge — let the teacher still treat him with 
civility, but let him be requested to wedge himself into some one of 
the narrow cramp-giving seats provided for the children, so hard, sharp 
edged, pillory like, as to stop the blood from circulating to his lower 
extremities, and he will avoid the house ever afterwards, as much as if 
it were the " long, low, suspicious black schooner" that frightened our 
coasts some months since." — Common School Journal. 

The parent, that at any rate procures his child a good mind, well 
principled and tempered, makes a better purchase for him, than to lay 
out the money to enlarge his farm. 

Spare the child in nick-nacks, toys and play-games, in silks and 
ribbons, as much as you please ; but be not sparing in his education. 
It is not good husbandry to make his fortune rich and his mind poor. 



SCHOOL LIBRARIES. 

Says the honourable Mr. Wyse, member of the British Parliament : 
" A reading people will soon becom3 a thinking people, and a thinking 
people must soon become a great people." 

il Without books " says the quaint Bartholin, " God is silent, jut ?ce 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



29 



dormant, science at a stand, philosophy lame, letters dumb, and all 
things involved in Cimmerian darkness.'* And this is true : for the 
history and the wisdom of other men and other generations, can be 
ours only by reading. 

" Reading," says Lord Bacon, " makes a full man, and thinking a 
correct man." But what so apt to make us think, as books, which 
put us among the thinking, and give us the materials for thought. 
There is as much reason in sending a man into the field to cut down 
the grass without a scythe as to expect a child to grow up a strong in- 
telligent man without books. The child requires a good library of 
books as much as the merchant does his store filled with goods. Books 
are, to the young mind seeking knowledge, what capital is to the man 
of business seeking wealth. We cannot expect the children of our 
State to grow rich in knowledge, unless we give them a good capital 
stock to work with. 

Every book which the child reads with intelligence, is like a cast 
of the weaver's shuttle, adding another thread to the indestructible web 
of existence. 

We do not wish mere mechanical book devourers, warped clean 
out of their own orbits, and made mere satalites instead of being sys- 
tems. No, when one reads there should be such clear independent 
thinking that it will be difficult, at the bottom of the page, to know 
which are our own or the authors thoughts. 

If we will but give the people books and this ability to read, they 
can educate themselves ; and self-education is always the best educa- 
tion. The great mathematician Edmund Stone was the gardner of 
the Duke of Argyle; and when Edmund was but seventeen years old, 
the Duke was one day walking in his garden and noticed Newton's 
Principia lying on the grass, and directed it to betaken to his library. 
Young Stone appeared and claimed it. u Yours ! ! said the Duke, do 
you read Geometry and Latin and Newton?" " A little," answered 
the boy, who being farther questioned, excited the Duke's amazement 
still more. " And how came you with all this knowledge ?" the Duke 
at last inquired. « A servant," said Stone, " taught me ten years since 
to read ; and does a man need to know any thing more than to be able 
to read, and have a library, to learn every thing else ?" 

We spend millions in teaching the children of the State to read ; and 
can they receive the full benefit of this acquirement without books ? 
Let the State give to the children a library, and a love of letters, and 
like Edmund Stone,- will they need i any thing more i( to learn every 
thing else ?" 



no 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



GOOD BOOKS. 
The only paper currency worth more than gold and silver. 



TO TEACHERS. 
The business of a teacher is not to teach, but to assist the child in 
its efforts to teach itself. He should teach the child the way to the 
well) rather than carry it a glass of water. 



TO THE PUBLIC. 

We must agitate : for education, like a top, will fall as soon as we 
stop whipping. 

We have not only to strike while the iron is hot, but we must make 
the iron hot by striking. 

When thought is agitated, truth rises. 



PRESSURE IN THE MONEY MARKET. 
When a teacher in a common school is to be engaged, there is al- 
ways a terrible pressure in the money market. For this class all times 
are hard times. 



A GREAT MISTAKE. 

A strange idea is entertained, by many, that education unfits per- 
sons for labour, and renders them dissatisfied with their condition in 
life. But what would be said, were any of the powers of the body to 
be, in a certain case, disused ? Suppose a man were to place a ban- 
dage over his right eye ; tie up one of his hands ; or attach a ponder- 
ous weight to his legs ; and, when asked the cause, were to reply, that 
the glance of that eye might make him covetous ; that his hand might 
pick his neighbour's pocket ; or that his feet might carry him into 
evil company ; — might it not be fairly replied, that his members were 
given to use, and not to abuse ; that their abuse is no argument against 
their use ; and that this suspension of their action was just as contra- 
ry to the wise and benevolent purpose of their Creator, as their wmng 
and guilty application ? And does this reasoning fail, when applied 'to 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



31 



ithe mind ? Is not the unemployed mental faculty as opposed to the 
[advantage of the individual, as the unused physical power ? Can the 
difference between mind and matter overturn the ordinary principles 
of reasoning and of morals ? Besides, how is a man to be prepared 
'for the duties he has to discharge ? By mere attention to his body ? 
Impossible. The mind must be enlightened and disciplined ; and, if 
'this be neglected, the man rises but little, in character, above the 
beasts that perish, and is wholly unprepared for that state, to which he 
should have aspired. 



MAN MADE TO BE EDUCATED. 

" Uneducated mind, is educated vice," for God made man to know. 
He is the creature of instruction ; for in a right education there is a 
divine alchymy which turns all the baser parts of man's nature into 
gold. We are told by the ancients that as soon as the first rays of 
the morning sun fell upon the statute of Memnon, it sent up music. It 
is after the first rays of knowledge fall upon man that his nature dis- 
courses harmony — all before is the discord and darkness of barbarism. 

All can see that wickedness leads to misery, yet very few find out 
that which is equally certain, that ignorance leads to misery and 
misery to wickedness. Dr. Johnson was once asked : " Who is the 
most miserable man," and the reply ol the Sage was : " that man who 
cannot read on a rainy day." The writer was once passing through 
a park and saw nailed to one of the trees, this warning : " All dogs 
found in this park will be shot." A friend who was with us, remarked, 
" unless dogs can read they are pretty badly off here." Now God 
has not only written his laws upon the trees, but in the stars and in 
the flowers ; his laws are above us and beneath us, on our right and 
on our left, and if a man is not able to read he is pretty badly off here 
—worse off than the dog, for the dog has a master to read for him 
but man has no master between him and his God. 

A maxim, of more truth and force than any other I remember eve 
to have seen was thrown off by a British Statesman — by a man who 
was in learning vivid, varied and philosophical, and who in conversation 
threw out more gems, sparkling and brilliant as they came, than any 
other man of his age. His profound apothegm was that, ** Education 
Qhe cheap defence of nations" And if I might put a truism by the 



32 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



side of this, I would say : It is cheaper to educate the infant mind, 
than to support the aged criminal. Yes, bestow the pence on com- 
mon schools, and save the pounds on prisons. Man was not made to 
be sent to prison, but to be educated ; and "the very worst use you 
can put a man to is to hang him." Neither is man a Human Poor 
Box into whose mouth we are to drop a few cents daily. " The igno- 
rant child left to grow up darkening into the deeper ignorance of man- 
hood, with all its jealousies, and its narrow-mindedness, and its super- 
stitions, and its penury of enjoyments ; poor amid the intellectual and 
moral riches of the universe ; blind in this splendid temple which God 
has lighted up, and famishing amid the profusions of omnipotence." 

" O, woe for those who trample on the mind, 
That fearful thing ! They know not what they do 

Nor what they deal with 

To lay rude hands upon God's mysteries there." 



SEATS, AIR, LIGHT, WARMTH, &c. 

High and narrow seats are not only extremely uncomfortable for the 
young scholar, tending constantly to make him restless and noisy, 
disturbing his temper, and preventing his attention to his books, but 
they also have a direct tendency to produce deformity of the limbs. 

If the seat is too narrow, half the thigh only rests upon it ; if too 
high, the feet cannot reach the floor ; the consequence is, that the 
limbs are suspended on the centre of the thigh. Now, as the limbs of 
children are pliable or flexible, they are easily made to grow out of 
shape, and become crooked, by such an awkward and unnatural 
position. 

Seats without backs have an equally unfavorable influence upon the 
spinal column. If no rest is afforded the backs of children while 
seated, they almost necessarily assume a bent and crooked. position, 
such a position often assumed or long continued, tends to that deform- 
ity which has become extremely common with children in modern 
times, and leads to disease of the spine in innumerable instances, es- 
pecially with delicate female children. 

The seats in shool-rooms should be so constructed that the whole 
thigh can rest upon them, and at the same time the foot stand firmly 
upon the floor ; all seats should have backs high enough to reach the 
shoulder-blades ; low backs, although better than non e, are far h$» 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



33 



Mtfey and useful than high ones, and will not prevent pain and uneasi- 
less after sitting a considerable time. Young children should be per- 
mitted to change their position often, to stand on their feet, to march, 
i and to visit the play-ground. One hour is as long as any child, under 
ten years of age, should be confined at once ; and four hours as long 
as he should be confined to his" seat in one day. — Dr. Woodworth. 

To ventilate the school-room, the windows should extend to the 
ceiling, and the top sash be permitted to drop. Two apertures, each 
a foot square, should also be made in the ceiling ; and through a 
warmed chamber, next to, and directly under, the stove, the air from 
out of doors should be let into the room. Thus admitting the fresh air 
into the room, while that which has been breathed is escaping through 
the draft of the stove and fire-place, and the apertures made in the top 
of the room, and by dropping the windows. 

The house should face the south, and it would be better if windows 
were made only in the south and north sides of the house, as painters, 
1 and those who study this subject, always avoid cross lights. Northern 
\ windows give a more steady light, and those in the south side should 
have broad strong eurtains, to break the glare of the meridian sun. 
, A wood-house, as large as the school-house, to give the children a 
I place for exercise in stormy weather, should stand on the west side of 
the school house, and directly against it, to cover from the west wind. 
The room should be warmed by a stove, and a fire place, where the 
children may warm and dry their feet. The stove should stand near 
the wall, and the pipe enter it about a foot above the stove. If the 
I pipe is sent around the room, it burns and dries the air, and the chil- 
I dren will have the head-ache. A basin of water should be kept on the 
i stove, to moisten the air. The room should always be well warmed 
in the morning before the children assemble. 



MORAL INSTRUCTION — THE BIBLE. 

"Knowledge is power" — power to do evil, and power to do good ; and 
unless the individual can command his appetites, subdue his passions, 
and control his desires ; unless there is a clear abiding sense of right 
£id wrong ; a feeling of responsibility to God and our neighbor, an edu- 



34 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



cation may assist in demoralizing the man, and in^making him the 
more dangerous and dreaded object of society. A knowledge of 
wickedness is not wisdom — hence, whether instruction shall benefit 
the child, or not, depends upon the character, and the use the receiver 
shall make of it. To educate the head only, is to arm vice ; for the 
march of intellect, separated from religious instruction, has always 
been the rogue's march. And that progress of mind which leaves the 
Bible in the rear, is an advance, like that of our first parents in Para, 
dise, towards knowledge, at the same time towards death. Said 
Milton, 

| " Think not that liberty" 

" From knowledge and religion e'er will dwell'' 
" Apart, companions they" 
" Of Heavenly seed connate." 

And even Lord Byron was compelled to say, 

" The tree of knowledge is not that of life," 
* * * * I have known" 
"That knowledge is not happiness." 

Reason is the free gift of God ; but man has the power of perverting 
it, and of converting what may be made life-giving, into that which 
is destructive of life, as from the most nutritious of substances, may be 
forced out the deadliest poisons. 

The children of this free people, tb?n, should receive at our hands 
that highest boon from man, 

" That pearl which rich men cannot buy," ' 
" And which learning is too proud to gather up," 

a Bible education, — an enlightened religious training. To secure this, 
the best text-book that can be used in schools is the " Word of Inspi- 
ration." In the thoughts of this volume there is a simplicity, a gran- 
deur, and a reality, which interests the mind and the heart ; and in 
all the wide range of science, what part is there like, in its depth and 
difficulty, to the science of God. In all the annals of the human 
kind, what history is there so curious, so rivetting, as that of the in- 
fancy of man — the cradling, so to speak, of earth's humanity ? Whe|£ 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



35 



i kvill you find a law-giver from whose thoughts may be learned a wiser 
government, than is seen in the book of Moses ? Where will you find 
such vivid illustrations of the power of truth as are furnished by the 
march of Christianity, when the Apostles stood alone, and the whole 
world against them 1 And if there be no book which treats of a 
oftier science, and none which contains a more interesting history, 
md none which more clearly opens the principles of right, and the 
! prowess of truth— why then, the Bible, above all other books, raust be 
jsed as the great instrument for achieving man's elevation.* It is as 
instructive to the intellect to take the Bible from it, as it is to the 
>ody to take oxygen from the air. When the stars in Heaven can 
, jut themselves loose from God, and still continue to shine ; when the 
j3arth can bud and blossom without the sun and its creator, then can 
Dur schools do without the Bible. 

" The truth is, we live in the midst of blessings, till we are utterly in- 
sensible of their greatness, and of the sources from whence they flow. 
We speak of our civilization, our arts, our freedom, our laws, and for- 
ret entirely how large a share of all is due to Christianity. Take 
;he influence of the Bible from man's history, and what would his 
aws be, what his civilization ? Christianity is mixed up with our 
laily being ; there is not a familiar object around us that does not 
»vear a different aspect, because the light of Christian hope is on it — 
lot a law that does not owe its truth and gentleness to Christianity — 
ind not a custom which cannot be traced, in all its holy and healthful 
>arts, to the gospel." Object to the use of the Bible in our schools ! ! 
Ifou might, with as much reason, murmur at the sun-beam for lighting 
lp this globe ; at the air that sustains existence, and carries to the 
ields the rain-drops of plenty ; or at the rich bounties that are poured 
nto our laps from the libera^ store-house of the earth ! 

Say, why are there so many unsatisfied, aching, throbbing hearts, 
nil over this world ? Because the Bible, with its fullness, and its love, 
ind its hopes and promises, has not been their study. Why do so 
many fail of hapiness here ? 

" In that lexicon of youth whi«h religion reserves for a bright man. 
riood, there is no such word ax fail.' 



* See MerviH : 8 Sermons. 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



The newspaper, and the cheap publications, have been sent to the 
poor, and they have drawn him away from his Bible — once his only 
book, and always his best friend. How necessary, then, that he should 
learn its truths in the school room, where the world's distraction and 
strife do not enter. Yes, I would say, close up the windows of these 
schools, and let the children sit in them, and blear at each other in dark- 
ness, rather than close out the Bible. Take away, if you will, the 
teacher of the school, but take not away from it, that " Teacher sent 
from God." A free constitution, liberty, and all, do not prevent crime, 
poverty, and suffering. No ; the practice of the precepts of the 
Bible alone can do this. While our money-making system is perfect, 
let us not forget, that man has another end ; an end far more noble, 
an end more divine, than to move stones upon the earth. The end of 
man is thought, conscience, love, joy, adoration. And the creator of 
this human thought will not ask of civilization whether it has formed 
skillful operatives, but rather, has it elevated, and ennobled, and chris- 
tianized this thought and worship. 



SCHOOL GOVERNMENT, 

We would praise a school as Pope did a government, " That which 
is best administered, is best." Yet, in the whole range of human du- 
ties, we think there are none more arduous and difficult than the right 
discipline and government of a common school. Dr. South, the Eng- 
lish Sermonizer, said, " Every child has some brute in it, 
and some man in it, and just in proportion to the brute we 
must whip it." But Dr. Bell, the distinguished Educator, once re- 
marked that, " A maximum of attainment could be made only, by a 
minimum of punishment." Yet, we believe that corporal punishment 
is necessary sometimes. " It is true, Ave abhor this government, but 
we abhor," says the Boston Common School Journal, ** the halter and 
the state prison more ; and, in the present state of society, it is our 
belief that, if the first be not sometimes used, the last must be. And 
it is pusillanimity, as well as folly, to shrink from the crushing of the 
egg but to wait composedly for the hatching of the viper." 

When punishments are inflicted, they should answer their e% \ 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



37 



[rhey should not be inflicted in that spirit which debases and brutifies 
both scholars and master. Teachers there are, who thoughtlessly and 
unfeelingly pinch the ears and pull the hair of their pupils, and beat 
hem about the head with books and ferules ; such should he swine- 
Irivers, and fined soundly for their want of humanity. 
I Locke on the Human understanding has, in the following quotation, 
Exhausted this whole matter. 

" I have seen parents so heap rules on their children, that it was im- 
possible for the poor little ones to remember a tenth part of them, much 
ess to observe them. However, they were either by words or blows 
corrected for the breach of those multiplied and often very impertinent 
>recepts. Whence it naturally followed, that the children minded not 
vhat was said to them ; when it was evident to them, that no attention 
|:hey were capable of, was sufficient to preserve them from transgres- 
sion, and the rebukes which followed it. 

Let, therefore, your rules to your son be as few as is possible, and 
father fewer than seem absolutely necessary. For if you burden him 
vith many rules, one of these two things must necessarily follow, that 
uther he must be very often punished, which will be of ill consequence, 
7y making punishment too frequent and familiar; or else you must 
et the transgressions of some of your rulos go unpunished, whereby 
hey will of course grow contemptible, and j our authority grow cheap 
'o him. Make but few laws, but see they will be well observed, when 
>nce made. Few years require but few laws ; and as his age increases, 
ivhen one rule is by practice well established, you may add another. 

But pray remember, children are not to be taught by rules, which 
k vill be always slipping out of their memories. What you think neces- 
sary for them to do, settle in them by an indispensable practice, as 
)ften as the occasion returns ; and, if it be possible, make occasions. 
This will beget habits in them which, being once established, operate 
)f themselves easily and naturally, without the assistance of the me- 
nory. But here let me give two cautions : 1. The one is, that you 
jteep them to the practice of what you would have grow into a habit 
n them, by kind words and gentle admonitions, rather as reminding 
:hem of what they forget, than by harsh rebukes and chiding, as if 
hey were wilfully guilty. 2dly, Another thing you are to take care of 
is, not to endeavor to settle too many habits at once, lest by a variety 
you confound them, and so perfect none. When constant custom has 
made any one thing easy and natural to them, and they practise it 
without reflection you may then go on to another." . 



39 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS. 
A teacher should not only be a learned man, he should be able to 
communicate his knowlepge with such directness and clearness, that 
the child would feel 

" As if the soul that moment caught 
Some treasure it through life had sought." , 

An aptness to teach, united with a warm, generous fellow feeling/or 
children are indispensable requisites for him who is 

" To aid the mind's development, to watch 
The dawn of little thoughts — to see and aid 
Almost the ver yjrrowth " 

A teacher should possess a good moral character. 
He should be at all times under the most watchful self-govern- 
ment. 

He should possess a good judgment — k< that high, clear, round-about 
common sense," as Mr. Locke calls it. 
He should have an even, uniform temper. 
He should have decision and firmness. 
He should be able to discriminate character. 
He should be qualified to illustrate and simplify the studies. 
He should love his business. 

He should make his calling his study and profession for life. 
He should be patient and persevering. 
He should be pleasant and affectionate. 

He should be capable of surmounting difficulties, and of showing 
pupils the importance of knowledge. 



MAN'S STRUGGLE FOR TRUTH. 
The history of the moral and political world shows us that man will 
exhaust every absurd opinion before he will form a right one. And 
on the true school system this is the age of the exhausting process, for 
all our systems are claiming truth, yet truth disclaims them all. 
Much is said on the subject of education, but it seems as if these inAfcl- 



1 



TliJS COMMUK SCHOOL ALMANAC 



39 



jlectual fragments, scattered as they are on every side, were unable to 

Icollect, unable to cohere. 

Yet a school system, however perfect, is not education ; a fund 

Ihowever princely, is not education. Personal effort and personal sa- 
crifice is the price that must be paid for knowledge. The people, 
then, must co-operate with the school system as they find it — breathe 
life into all its parts, and thus improve it. This is better than legisla- 
tive experiments at the Capitol. 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL ARMY. 
The boys and girls in our common schools — the true standing army. 
These, soldiers are in citadels which rise up around us the noblest bul- 
warks against ignorance, that worst enemy of the human race. 
Whoever builds a school house or teaches a good school, is erecting 
the strongest monument to freedom. If the time shall ever come when 
this great government shall totter, when this Beacon, now the sign 
and wonder of the world, shall wax dim, the cause will be found in the 
ignorance of the people, " And the people perish for lack of know- 
jtedge." 



EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND. 
The population of Scotland is 2,365,807 ; of which, 394,301, or one- 
sixth, should be at school. Scotland is divided into 907 parishes, in- 
cluding 1,005 parochial schools, attended by 60,000 children. From 
this it would seem that not one-sixth of the juvenile population are 
provided for in this class of schools. It is estimated that 15,000 may 
be in burgh and other public schools ; 25,000 in society and charity 
schools, and 6,610 in schools established by the general assembly in 
the highlands and islands; making the total attendance 147,110 ; and 
leaving 247,190, for whose instruction no public provision has been 
made. 

In the want of public schools, and from defects in their organiza- 
tion and management, private schools have been established, and to 
; these the higher and middle classes, »« influenced by a desire to give 
j their children a better education than can be obtained in the paro- 
chial schools ; and yet, more by a spirit of exclusion, send their chil- 
dren." It is estimated that there arc as many children in the private 



10 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



as in the public schools. This will leave upwards of 100,000 children 
to grow up without the means of education. 

Mr. Colquhoun, in his speech in the House of Commons in June 
last year (1834,) estimates that there are 20,000 in this state in Glas- 
gow alone ; the whole population of that town being about 200,000. 
In Paisley no fewer than 14,000 are growing up without educa- 
tion. 



EDUCATION IN THE FACTORIES OF EDINBURGH. 

The boys and girls, to the number of 198, chiefly of the ages of 
eleven to thirteen years, were separately required to read a few 
verses of a chapter from the New Testament; and the following is 
the sad result. 

Twenty-five could read well. Fifty-seven imperfectly ; but riot so 
as to know much of what they read. Forty-nine had been at school, 
but could not read. The remainder, sixty-seven, had never been at 
school or taught to read. 

Thus, 116 out of 198 are unable to read- Of these, nineteen could 
write; some, however, only large text. Not above three or four of 
the twenty-five who could read well, could form any distinct impres- 
sion of the meaning of what they did read. — Third Publication of the 
" Central School Society." 



EDUCATION IN IRELAND. 

Number of daily schools, .... 9,657 

Number of daily schools supported wholly by payments 

from the children, ..... 5,653 

Number of daily schools supported wholly or in part, by 

endowments or subscription, . . . . 4,004 

f The National Board, 892 

| Associations for discoun- 

Number of schools in connection ! tenancing vice, 203 

with, or receiving support from { Erasmus Smith's Fund, 115 

| Kildaire place Society, 235 

I. London Hibernian Society, 618 

Number of daily schools of which the books containing 

lists of the children were produced, . . . S,S86 

xt u c u-u A , , ( Males, 353,809 

JN umber ot children on the books 1 1? , 000 nnn 

c ■ , < remales, 223,900 
oi these schools, i c , . c i 

' ( hex not specified, 5,700 



Tiii: cum iuorf school almanac. 



Number of schools of which no lists Were produced 771 
[Computed number of children under daily instruction in 

such schools, ..... 50,886 

Computed total number of children under daily instructions, 633,946 

From the foregoing table it appears that not more than about eighth 
per cent, of the population of Ireland are in attendance upon school ; 
whereas, if education were sufficiently prized, from twenty to twenty- 
five per cent, of the population would be in course of instruction. 

The number of children between the age of five and twelve years is 
rather more than 18 per cent. 

The present population of Ireland probably amounts to 8,500,000. 
Upon this number of eighteen per cent, would give 1,500,000 children 
to be educated; of whom 1,200,000, or, at the very lowest computa- 
tion, 1,000,000 belong to those classes for the education of whose 
children it is the especial duty of the Slate to afford peculiar facili- 
ties. In this view of the subject we have not taken into account the 
children between three years old and five years, although in our 
opinion infant schools ought to be provided for this portion of the 
national offspring. In this paper we have not attempted any sepa- 
rate notice of the infant schools at present existing in Ireland, be- 
cause they are not sufficiently numerous to obtain a place in our 
general classification. To provide a suitable education for one 
million of children, would probably cost above 300,000Z. per anuum ; 
;and herein lies one of the main difficulties, which terrifies states- 
men. The same minister who cheerfully asks from Parliament above 
a million and a half sterling every year to provide a military and 
police force for the purpose of coercing the people of Ireland to the ob- 
servance of order, would shrink from the duty of proposing an annual 
grant of 200,0007. to instruct the rising generation in their duties as 
jsubjects and citizens. — President Baches Report. 

These foreign statistics are taken from'Bache's Report, — Publications 
of the " CentralSchool Society" of Europe, — Professor Stow's Report 
— Cousin's Report, and private correspondence of the Editor. 



EDUCATION IN ENGLAND. 

This country is without any general school system lor the educa- 
cation of the people. And from the best information we can obta in 
by the publication of Messrs " Simpson," " Wyse," "Dunn, "and of 
i\9" House of Commons," not more than one child in six, is taught to 



42 



Tllfi COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



read. Says Mr. Simpson, in his incomparable work on National 
Education in Great Britian :" 

That the existing provision for popular instruction is deficient in 
quantity, and in too many cases, still more defective in quality, must 
be admitted by all who are acquainted with the actual state of the 
country. The intellectual condition of the agricultural districts has 
been well described by a powerful and original writer as " a gloomy 
monotony ; — death without his dance." Shut out from every thing 
that can sustain or ennoble an intelligent nature, the peasantry of 
England have long since displayed, in unparalleled degradation, the 
full effects of knowledge denied, and have now sunk into a state of 
mental inanition and semi-barbarism, from which, it is to be feared, 
the present generation can never be recovered. Rude, selfish, super- 
stitious and profane j — their sense of right and wrong limited and of- 
ten perverted ; insensible to enjoyments of a higher order than those 
which arise from the grosser forms of sensual gratification ; and 
scarcely ever looking beyond the apparent interests of the present 
hour, the great mass live and die without an effort to raise themselves 
above the lowest conditions of animal existence. 

In the towns a different state of things prevails, yet one scarcely 
less to be lamented, and probably more perilous to the peace of the 
community. The bulk of the laborers still remain in utter and hope- 
less ignorance ; while the better class of artizans, only partially en- 
lightened, are seldom found capable of enjoying a scientific lecture, a 
Useful book, or a calm political disquisition. 



EDUCATION IN PRUSSIA, 



Population (1839,) ... * 14,098,125 

No. of children over 4 and under 16, . . 2,830,328 

No. of Public Primary Schools, . . 22,910 

No. of Scholars in Primary Schools, . 2,171,745 

No. of Scholars in Burger, (Higher) Schools, * 117,982 

No. not in public Schools, . . . 540,601 

No, of Teachers in primary Schools, . . 27,575 

No. of Teachers in all the public Schools, . 28,682 

No. of Teachers and seminaries, . . 45 

No» of pupils in do, . . * & 2,583 



How [are the expenses of these schools defrayed, and what is the 



the common school almanac. 



4:3 



proportion actually paid by the State? Taking the number of Ele- 
mentary schools at 22,910, and supposing each school, according to 
official calculation, to require for payment of teachers, cost of school, 
outfit, apparatus, dec, a sum not exceeding 150 thalers yearly, the 
whole charge of all these schools would arnouut to an annual sum of 
3,436,500 thalers— about $2,410,000. Of this less than $100,000 is 
appropriated by the State. The balance raised by a direct tax. — Hon, 
Thomas Wyse on the stale of Prussian Education in 1839. 



EDUCATION IN AUSTRIA. 

Capable of going to school, . . . males, 1,307,777 

" " "... females, 1,221,394 

2,529,171 

Actually going to school, * . • males, 874,720 

" " « . * . females, 661,384 

1,536,104 

Leaving 999,067 not in any school, or a little over one half of the 
children in the kingdom receiving an education. 

See " TurnbulVs Austria" just published in London. Also " Haw* 
kin's Germany" 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE, 



Population, . . . . . 


32,000,000 


No. of Teachers Seminaries, .... 


76 


No. of scholars in " .... 


2,500 


No. of Communes (school districts) which have schools, 


29,750 


No. of * 6 not supplied with schools, 


5,663 


No. of Private schools, ..... 


18,973 


No. of children in school, .... 


1,986,000 


No. of children not in a course of instruction, 


2,701,000 



G. R. Porters, Report to the " Statistical Society, London, 1838. 



EDUCATION IN RUSSIA. 
The different institutions in Russia are established as fast as the 



11 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



circumstances of the people admit, and as teachers can be found to 
supply them. At the date of the last report of the Minister of Public 
Instruction, the number of elementary and parish schools was about 
12,000 — of private schools, 430 — and of gymnasia, 67. 

At St. Petersburg there is a teacher's seminary, which in 1835 grad- 
uated 76 teachers. The number is every year increasing, and the 
methods of teaching are continually improving. — Prof. Stone's Report. 



NEW YORK. 

Population, ...... 2,378,890 

Whole number of School Districts, . . . 10,706 

Number of Districts that sent in reports in 1840, . 10,397 

Number of Children over 4 and under 16, . . 655,516 

Number of Children receiving instruction in these schools, 572,995 
Average length of time that all the schools are open is 8 months. 
Amount of money appropriated by the State to these 

Schools in 1839, . . . . $ 275,000 00 

Amount raised by tax the same year, . . 244,747 04 

Additional amount raised in cities by tax, . . 114,294 97 

Amount voluntarily raised by individuals, . . 476,443 27 

Whole amount paid to teachers, . . . 1,011,873 06 

The whole expense of the schools that year, . 1,924,331 10 

Average compensation of teachers, per month, males, 818 00 

" « " « females, 6 00 

Average cost of instruction for each child, . . $3 35 

Amount of money expended in 1S37 for District Li- 
braries, . . . . . , .$94,998 56 

Number of volumes in Libraries, Dec 31, 1840, . 422,459 

The following statement will exhibit the progress of these depart- 
ments. In 1835 they were established, and the number of pupils has 
been annually as follows : 

In 1835, 138 In 1838, 374 

In 1836, 218 In 1839, 498 

In 1837, 284 In 1840, 668 

teachers' wages. 

The gradual increase of the rate of male teachers' wages for sever 
years, is shown by the following tabic. 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



45 



In 1831, the rate was 



811 85 per month. 



1832, do. ... 12 22 do. 

1834, do. ... 12 70 do. 

1835, do. ... 12 90 do. 

1837, do. ... 13 93 do. 

1838, do. ... 16 50 do. 

1839, do. ... 18 00 do. 

Since 1836, there has been, as will be seen by the reports of the State, 
a rapid progress, unexampled in either of the other States, in the im- 
provement of the Common Schools. At that time, or soon after, a 
cheap monthly Paper, for the improvement of Schools, was commenc- 
ed, and sent for two years, gratuitously, to each school in the State. 
(The editor of this Almanac was also sent to address the people on the 
subject of education in each county of the State. These efforts, 
leading to such gratifying results, were sustained by the voluntary do- 
nations of three to five hundred dollars each from the following gentle- 
men. 

James G. King, of N. Y. 

James Wadsvvorth, of Geneseo. 

Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany. 

Robert Donaldson, of N. Y- 

Henry Cruger, of N. Y. 

Robert Ray, of N. Y. 

Frederick Sheldon, of N. Y. 

Edward C. Delevan, of Ballstown. 

Gerret Smith, of Peterboro'. 

Thomas W. Olcott, of Albany. 

Archibald Mclntyre, of Albany. 

Samuel Ward, of N. Y. 

S. F. Mott, of N. Y. 

John Mason, of N. Y. 

J. F. Sheafe, of N. Y. 

William Colegate, of N. Y. 

D. S. Gregory, of Jersey City. 

David Henderson, do. 
These gentlemen, and others who aided the above efforts, can now 
have the pleasure of seeing the State support a Paper to be sent to each 
l^iool, and a lecturer on education for each county in the State. 



46 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC 



IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 



eported by commis- 




22,955 


Boys. 


Girls. 


. 4387 






3459 


479 


112 


1690 


1432 


2881 


2941 


335 






288 


69 


78 


160 


268 




$64,219,00 




2,500,00 




14,396,02 




8,193,46 




45,840,38 




172,280,03 



sioners of. common schools for 1840, 

Attendance — viz. in 14 Boys' School, white, 
14 Girls', . 

2 Boys' and Girl's school, 
12 Primary Departments, 
46 Primary schools, . 
2 Boys' Schools, colored, 
• 2 Girls', . 

1 Primary Department do. 
5 Primary schools, do. 
Besides 451 children under 4 years of age. 
Salaries of teachers, assistants and monitors, 
Agent, visiters, &c. . 

Books, stationery, ..... 
Supplies for workshop, &c. .... 
Buildings and lots, ..... 
Aggregate expenditure for 1840, 

There are, in the city, sixteen public school-houses. These are 
handsome brick buildings, containing two large rooms, one on the 
ground floor, and another above, appropriated to the pupils of the re- 
spective sexes. In ten out of the sixteen there is also a primary de- 
partment for younger children, kept in the basement story ; and there 
are besides, forty-five primary schools distinctively so called, taught in 
hired rooms, frequently the basement story of churches ; there are also 
seven schools (two public and five primary) for the children of the 
Blacks. The rooms in which the higher departments of the public 
schools are taught are light, airy, and commodious ; and where the 
arrangement is complete, they have two smaller apartments attached 
to the larger for the use of separate classes. In most of them the 
Eastern and Western Hemispheres, six feet in diameter, are painted in 
strong colors on the wall ; in some is added a representation of the so- 
lar system, or of the eclipses ; and most, if not all, of the schools are 
furnished with libraries. Nor let me omit to state, that the apart- 
ments, especially those in the primary schools, are kept beautifully 
clean, chiefly by the use of fine white sand, which is sprinkled on the 
floors. 



The education gratuitously given to the children in the Public 
Schools of the city of New-York is more thorough and extended, than 
is furnished by any similar schools in our country. These noble in- 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMAMAC. 



47 



j stitutions, — the fairest ornament of the city, have been perfected by 
the unwearied and philanthropic efforts of the distinguished citizens who 
ihave composed the Board, and it is deeply lamented that efforts are 

, made to take the system from the hands of such enlightened and suc- 
cessful guardians of education. We most fervently hope that these 

i insidious movements may be abortive. 



BOSTON. 

Population, ...... 30,325 

! Number of persons over 4 and under 16, . . 17,840 

Number of scholars in public schools, . . . 10,766 

I Average attendance. . 8,871 

i Average wages paid per month to teachers — males, . $104,55 

« « « « « females, 20,82 
Amount of money raised by tax for teachers' wages and 

fuel, $90,458,76 

Whole amount raised by tax for scholars in 1839, . $115,000,00 

The whole number of schools, supported at the expense of the city 
i is one hundred and seven. Of these, ninety-one are Primary Schools, 
i fourteen are English Grammar and Writing Schools, one an English 
High School, and one a Latin School. 

The Primary Schools are visited and examined, once a month, by 
[their Committees, and semi-annually, by the Standing Committee of 
(the whole Board. At the semi-annual examination, in November, 
I 1839, there were present four thousand four hundred and eighty-three 
I pupils, and absent, nine hundred and nineteen, making the whole num- 
ber, belonging, five thousand four hundred and two, averaging fifty- 
nine and one third to each School. During the preceding six months, 
they had been examined by the Committee three hundred and seventy- 
five times, and visited five hundred and twenty-eight times ; being an 
average of more than four examinations, and about six visits, to each 
School, for the six months. 

«< In Massachusetts the money for the support of schools is derived, 
1, from the income of the School Fund ; 2, from direct taxation. The 
Fund was created in 1835 from the unappropriated money received for 
the sale of lands in Maine and from money due from the United States 
; for military services ; it is increased from time to time by adding to it 
; half the proceeds that may arise from the future sales of Maine lands 
until the fund shall amount to one million dollars, which sum it must 
never exceed. At the beginning of 1840 the fund amounted to 
$437,592. The number of children in the State between four and six- 
tgap years of age is 179,268. The amount raised by direct tax for the 



48 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



support of schools in 1839 was 8477,221. In 1839, 28,635 children 
and youth were educated in private schools at an expense of 8241,114. 

In 1838 a gentleman at Boston gave into the hands of the Board 
$10,000, provided the State would add an equal sum, for the purpose 
of making an experiment upon normal schools. This was done and 
820,000 were appropriated to the establishment in various parts of the 
State of Schools for teachers." — From the " New York Tribune" 
editedby Horace Greely. 



PENNSYLVANIA. — 1840. 

Population, 1,676,115 

Number of school districts, exclusive of city and county of 

Philadelphia, 1050 

Number of accepting districts, ; 867 

Number of schools in accepting districts, . . . 5649 

Average length of schools, five months and eight days. 
Number of schools yet required in sAme districts, . . 737 
Number of teachers employed during the year, males 4489, 

females 2050. Total, 6539 

Average salaries of teachers per month, mates, . . . 819 40 
« " " " « females, . . 812 03 

Number of Schollars in schools, . . . . . 254,908 
Average number in each school, . . . . . 41 j? 
Average cost of each scholar per quarter, . . . . 81 36 \ 
Whole amount of State appropriation for 1840, . . 8350,061 00 
Proportion belonging to city and county of Philadelphia, 49,2S3 00 
Amount of State appropriation for 1840 in 887 accepting 

districts, . . 8254,086 00 

Amount raised by tax for school purposes in said S87 dis- 
tricts, • . $395,918 00 

Whole amount of school money in said districts, . . 650,004 00 
Whole number of schoolhouses in use in 1840, . . . 5,494 
Amount paid for building and repairing schoolhouses in 

1840, . . . 8161,384 06 

The public schools of the city and county of Philadelphia included 
21,968 pupils, for the entire year, at an expense of $5 per scholar, or 
a total expenditure of 8147,749 44. 



COMMON SCHOOLS IN CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Number of children enrolled during the year, . . • 4,480 
Number of children in daily attendance, .... D,'?/ 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



49 



Number of Teachers (male 21, female 42) 
Average number of pupils to each teacher, 

Salary of Principal, j ; 

Whole amount of Teacher's salaries, 
Interest on permanent loan for building, 
Incidental expenses, 
Average cost of each pupil per year, 



63 
41 

$540 
$300 
$19,604 35 
$3,307 91 
$1,192 86 
7 50 



r COMPARATIVE VIEW 
Of the population of the TJ. S. in 1830, and 1840. 



Whites 
Free colored 
Slaves 

Naval service 
Total, 



Census 1830. 
10,526,248 
319,599 
2,009,043 
5,318 

12,866,920 



Census '40. 
14,186,575 
386,069 
2,486,368 
6,100 

17,068,112 



Increase in 10 Years, 

Whites, . . . . 3,059,327, 
Free colored, .... 674,70, 
Slaves, 477,325, 

White Population, 
1830. 

Free States and Territories, 6,865,700 
Slave States and Territories, 3,660,548 



or about 35 per cent. 
" 21 per cent. 
" 23f per cent. 



Ine 



Free States, &c. 
Slave States, &c. 



Free Colored. 

137,329 



182,270 



1840, 

9,555,922 
4,630,653 



170,704 
215,365 



Progress of Population in the U, S. since 1790. 



Census. 
1790 
1800 
1810 
1820 
1B30 
^40 



Whites. 
3,172,118 
4,312,841 
5,862,093 
7,861,906 
10,526,248 
] 4, 186,575 



Free colored. 

59,511 
110,072 
186,446 
238,161 
319,599 
386,069 



r se p. ct. 
39 
26 



24-l 
18 



Slaves. 
697,697 
896,840 
1,191,364 
1,538,064 
2,009,043 
2,486.308 



50 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



From this very interesting " Comparative view" we see that the 
United States have increased their population in the last ten years, 
four millions, two hundred and one thousand, one hundred and ninety- 
two — that the increase of the whites is one and a quarter per cent 
greater than the increase of the slaves, and four per cent greater than 
the increase of the free colored — and that the increase of the Free 
States and Territories is thirteen per cent greater, than the increase 
of the Slave States and Territories. » 

From the best and fullest data we can obtain there is in the United 
States 3,546,643 white children, between the ages of 4 and 16 — fit 
subjects for the school — and of these 891,000 have not, or do not use, the 
means even of a primary, or common school education ! And that 
there are 346,000 white adults, over twenty years of age unable to 
read.* 



SCHOOL HOUSES. 

Location. — The School House should stand on dry, firm ground, 
two hundred feet, at least, from the road, and entirely separated from 
every place of noise, danger or demoralization. Connected with the 
house should be one acre of land filled with ornamental trees, the 
whole enclosed by a strong painted fence. The following are the 
ground plans of a School House, taken from the Massachusetts Com- 
mon School Journal. 

EXPLANATION OF THE FOLLOWING FIGURE. 

P Doric Portico in front of the School House. — ddddd Doors.-— 
B E Boys' Entry, 12 by 10 feet.— G E Girls' Entry, 12 by 10 feet.— 
W R Wood Room, 11 by 8 feet. — g Fireplace. — e Closet.— -f Sink, to 
be concealed by a falling door balanced with weights. — D D D D 
Passage around the room, 6 feet wide. — 1 ^ 3 45 6 Stations marked 
on the floor, to be used by classes, when reciting to monitors. — A B A 
The Teacher's Platform, extending across the room, 6 feet wide and 
9 inches high. — B A part of the Platform to be removed in the win- 
ter, if necessary, to make room for a stove. — x Cabinet for apparatus, 
specimens, &c. — y Book-case. — H Master's Desk. — I Assistant or 
Monitor's Desk. — F Centre Passage ; in the plan drawn 3 feet wide, 
but 4 feet would be better. — b Scholar's Desks, 18 inches wide and 2 
feet long. — c Scholars' Seats. — a Passage between the seats and next 
row of desks, 13 inches wide. A desk, seat and passage, occupy 4 
feet, viz. desk 18 inches, space between the desk and seat 2 inches, 
seat 13 inches, passage 15 inches. — W W W, &c. Windows which 
should be placed high from the floor. The scale is about one-tenth of 
an inch to the foot. 

* See returns of last Census. ^ 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 




52 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



SCHOOL DESKS. 

A light green is perhaps the best color for the scholar's desks and 
seats, as it is more grateful than any other to the eye. For the out- 
side of the house, white is the color most universally pleasing. The 
floor of the room should be level, and not on an inclined plane. The 
lids or tops of the desks are usually made to slope too much. They 
should be nearly level with the floor ; an inch to a foot being a suffi- 
cient slope. The seats and desks should be fastened to the floor. 

EXPLANATION OF THE OPPOSITE CUT. 

Figure 2 represents another general plan of a School House. — A 
Teacher's Desk. — B B Teacher's Platform, from 1 to 2 feet in height. 
— C Step for ascending the Platform. — L L Cases for Books, Appa- 
ratus, Cabinet, &c. — H Pupils' single Desks, 2 feet by 18 inches. — 
M. Pupils' Seat, 1 foot by 20 inches. — I Aisles, 1 foot 6 inches in 
width. — D Place for stove, if one be used. — E Room for Recitation, or 
retiring in case of sudden indisposition, for interviews with parents, 
when necessary, &c. It may, also, be used for the Library, &c. — 
F F F F F Doors into the boys' and girls' entries, — from the entries 
into the schoolroom, and from schoolroom into the recitation room. — 
G GG G Windows. The windows on the sides are not lettered. 

The seats for small scholars, without desks, if needed, to be mova- 
ble, and placed as the general arrangements of the school shall render 
convenient. 

Where there is but one teacher, the space between the desks and the 
entries to be used for recitation. Here, also, is the place for black- 
boards, whether movable or attached to the wall. This space should 
be 8, 10, or 12 feet wide, according to the size of the school. 

The height of the room should never be less than 10 or 12 feet. 

Knowledge in itself is pure and bright, and the channels through 
which it is poured upon the human species should ever be kept open 
and undefled. # 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



The School House is the place where 

"Should step forth immortal man" 
" In beauty clad," 
" With health in every vein," 
" And reason throned upon his brow." 




EDUCATION AND CRIME. 

A paper was lately read before the Statistical Society of London, in 
which the author showed that) upon an average of the last three years, 
only 4 in 1,000 of the criminals committed for trial in England and 
Wales were educated, and only 10 in 100 could read and write well ; 
35 in 100 were wholly destitute of instruction, not being able either to 
write or to read ; and 54 in 100 possessed the lowest degree of ele- 
mentary instruction*, being able to read or write imperfectly. It can- 
not be doubted that this latter class had not received that amount of 
instruction which is worthy of the title of education, which, by the 
nature of the lessons conveyed, or by the direction given to the 
thoughts, could have any permanent good influence upon their minds 
and hearts. These two classes, therefore, or nearly 90 in 100, must 
be placed together as persons wholly destitute of moral instruction, and 
almost destitute of the elementary knowledge by the aid of which it 
might be acquired. The third class had advanced a step further : they 
could read and write well ; but it does not necessarily follow that edu- 
cation had been grafted on instruction, and that their reason was convin- 
ced, tkeir hearts touched, their hope raised, their faith established, while 
their intellectual powers were cultivated and developed. Less than this 
falls short of education; and education cannot be justly charged with 
inefficiency to restrain crime because a number of half-educated persons 
figure in the table of criminals. With regard to the restraining in- 
fluence of mere instruction, the question is different* Instruction oper- 
ates upon the mind — education upon the heart ; and we know that 
sin is engendered in the heart. However, we find that even instruction 
has some good influence. Only 10 in 100 criminals in England were 
instructed ; and we know that instruction must prepare the way for 
education, of which it is the handmaid and forerunner. "The school- 
master with his primer" must precede "the schoolmaster with his 
bible.'*— London Times, (Dec. 1840.) 

While reading this forcible statement of the influence of education 
and ignorance, it is with grief, that one contemplates the mistaken zeal, 
the illogical reasoning of certain Statesmen, and even of certain phi- 
lanthropists, who bestow so much pains and expense on prisons, and 
neglect schools. They allow crime to spring up, and vicious habits to 
take root, by the entire neglect of all intellectual and moral training 
in children ; and when crime is grown and is strong, and full of life, 
they attempt to cope with it ! ! They try to subdue it with the terror 
of punishment ! 

After exhausting all their resources— of thought and of money — they 
are pained and astonished to find all their efforts are vain. — The futil- 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



55 



ity of punishments was seen a few years since, when there was a great 
rage for tread-mills, which were expected to accomplish wonders. The 
observing philosopher, laughed at the idea, well knowing that crime 
proceeds from •* over-active propensities, and weak moral faculties' " and 
that the treadmill [only fatigues the muscles, and does not reach the 
mind so as to eradicate the causes. 

If education has been neglected to imprison and punish, may be very 
necessary, but to prevent crime is our duty. The seeds of morality and 
of piety must be early sown in the heart of the child, that they may be 
found again in the breast of the man. To improve, we must excite 
remorse, and awaken the voice of conscience. But how can we re- 
call a sound that has never been heard !— or revive a language that 
has never been taught ! 



FEMALE TEACHERS. 
A female is always the best teacher for small children. She can so 
readily put her heart on her lips and by the child's heart that 

" 'Tis pleasing to be schooled by Female lips and eyes, 
They smile so when one's right, and one's wrong 
They smile still more ; and then there 
Gomes encouragement in the soft hand 
Over the brow, perhaps even a chaste kiss— 
I learned the little that I know by this." 

Love teaches more than doctors do. 



EXPLAINING A MEANING. 
The following anecdote reminds one forcibly of the manner in which 
some teachers explain to children the meaning of the lesson 

I called, one day, at the parsonage, with a neighbor of ours, a Mrs. 
Moodey. After a pause, '* Mr. Pottle," said she to the minister, " I 
am almost ashamed to confess my ignorance, but you said something, 
in your last discourse, which I did not exactly understand." " Well, 
madam," said he, with a loud voice and stern expression, " and pray 
what was it ?" " O, dear sir," she replied, evidently confounded by 
his manner, " I do n't doubt, in the least that it was owing to my weak 
understanding ; but you said, sir, — speaking of the wiles of fc Satan, — 



5b 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



* as if as though to circumvent thee. 9 " " Oh, — ah, — yes, Mrs. Moody," 
he answered, " I well remember that expression. The meaning of 
those words, madam," raising his voice to a terrible pitch, and striking 
his hand violently upon the table, " the meaning of those words is this, 
Mrs. Moodey, — as if as though to circumvent thee!" "Oh, 
dear me, parson Pottle," cried Mrs. Moodey, with a trembling voice, 
"how very clear you make it now!" — ' Temperance Tales, 9 Vol. v. 
p. 115. 



TEACHER'S SELF EXAMINATION. 

Were my pupils punctual in attendance, to-day? Have I taken 
proper pains to show them and their parents the importance of punctu- 
ality, as a duty, both to themselves and to the other members of the 
sc hool ? Do they improve in this respect? Have I introduced clean- 
ly and orderly habits ? Has my conduct been a pattern in this respect ? 
Has there been no rude conduct around the stove ? Has the room 
been of the proper temperature to-day? If not, was it not owing, in 
in some degree, to my inattention ? Have 1 attended properly to ex- 
cluding the glare of sunshine? Are the windows properly curtained? 
Are there a mat, scraper, pail dipper, basin, and towel, in the room ? 
If any of these are wanting, have I made proper representations to the 
committee ? Have I taken sufficient pains to teach the scholars to use 
their books without injury ? Is the discipline on the best possible foot- 
ing ? Do the children improve in reading ? Are they fast leaving off 
their bad habits in this respect ? Do I never neglect questioning them 
as to what they have read? Do their habits of attention and observa- 
tion improve ? Have I taken proper pains to cause them to use right 
positions of hand and bod}", in writing? Do they make visible im- 
provement ? Do they steadily imp-rove in elocution and composition ? 
Do they use no grimace nor awkward motions, in the former? Are 
the orthography, punctuation, and grammar, properly attended to, in 
the compositions ? Do they advance, in propriety of expression and 
command of language, or do I allow them to hang back, or remain 
stationary ? Have 1 formed a list of local improprieties of speech ? 
Do I frequently exercise the scholars with it ? Has this exercise any 
practical effect, in correcting their language ? Do my pupils improve 
in written arithmetic? Can they add long sums rapidly ? Do they 
habitually use all the abbreviations I have taught them ? Have I 
taken sufficient pains in this respect ? Can they explain the reasons 
for every operation ? Do I frequently call on them to do this ? Do 
they make much progress in mental arithmetic ? Do 1 myself perform 
the questions simultaneously with them? Do I frequently require them 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



57 



to describe and give reasons for their mental operations ? Do I never 
allow them to have the book ? Do I encourage the slow, and prevent 
the bright from doing more than their share ? Do I see that all the 
pupils perform every question ? Is not my classification capable of 
improvement ? Have I given this important subject sufficient atten- 
tion ? Do my pupils advance in their other studies ? Do they appear 
to love and respect me ? If not, do I feel sure I am not to blame ? 
Have I explained the nature of the Record for Self-examination to all 
the parents and guardians ? Have I daily practised it with those 
whose parents have placed them, in this respect, under my care ? Is 
t iere any apparent moral improvement? Do I take sufficient pains to 
prevent its degenerating into a mere form, by my inattention ? Do I 
embrace every opportunity of referring my pupils to the Table of Vir- 
tues? Do I take sufficient pains in explaining the terms to the 
younger pupils? Do I possess uniformity of temper, decision and 
firmness, patience and perseverance ? Am I uniformly pleasant and 
affectionate in my manners, and at all times disposed to sympathize 
with my pupils? Do I never allow nryself to deviate in the slightest 
degree, from truth, either in thought, word, or action? — Palmer's 
Teacher's Manual. 



THE CHILD'S BIRTH-RIGHT. 
Education should need no advocating, as much as it does actually 
need. It stands on the basis of everlasting duty, — a prime necessity 
and birth-right of man. To impart the gift of thinking to those who 
cannot think, and yet have the capacity for thought, one would ima- 
gine, was the first function of a government. Would it not be a griev- 
ous thing to see the inhabitants of a place living all mutilated, each 
strong man with his right arm broken ! How much more deplorable 
to find the strong soul, with its eyes still sealed, its pulse gone, so that 
it sees not, throbs not ! The thoughts that millions of intellects have 
lived by, and that now live on, in everlasting music, come not to such 
brothers. 



GOVERNMENT REFORM. 

Let the government by timely education, convert the materials 
which go to make the felon and the polluter, into the industrious citizen 
and true christian, and thus save the fees of jailors and hangmen — the 
^pense of prisons and halters. 



58 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



LOOK TO YOUR SCHOOLS. 
For without incessant watchfulness — without an unsleeping eye, 
forever over these Public Institutions, they become, like wastes and 

commons, open apparently, to all, productive of benefit to none. Yet 

remember, these schools are forming the character of (i to-morrow's soci- 
ety." 



POWER OF PUBLIC OPINION. 

" For action treads the path" 
" In which opinion says he follows good or evil," 
"And opinion gives report of good or ill" 
11 As men are educated." 

Laws do not change opinion, but opinion changes law. If public 
sentiment is right, correct legal and private action will soon follow. 
We want not that sycophantic spirit, so common in public speeches, 
and which is ready on all occasions to cajole the ignorant and degrad- 
ed, by flattering them that they are more competent and patriotic 
than any other collection of men living ; but we want a moral heroism, a 
courageous, lofty spirit of truth, which dares to tell its neighbours that 
he who does not improve himself to the utmost, is something less than 
a man, and that all ought to strive after more education, more integri- 
ty, and more kindness and industry. 

Public opinion is the Throne of a republic ; and it is eloquently and 
correctly said by M. de Tocqueville, that " the greatest despotism on 
earth is an excited, untaught public sentiment ; and hence, we should 
not only hate despots, but despotism. And when I feel the hand of 
power lie heavy on my brow, I care little to know who oppresses me, 
the yoke is not easier, because it is held out to me by the hands of a 
million of men." 

The best means of correcting public sentiment, is to agitate it ; for 
" when thought is agitated truth rises." Let the schools then, which 
educate the public, be improved. Let light by means of the Press, and 
the living voice, be poured upon the public mind. 



A REPUBLICAN MAXIM. 
If ever we shall learn to legislate a far off, and upon a great syi 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC 



r,0 



tern — preparing the public mind, not obeying it — masters of the vast 
machine and not its tools. If ever that day shall arrive, the first 
maxim we shall establish will be : It is cheaper to educate the infant- 
mind, than to support the aged criminal. 



THE FATHER'S BEST LEGACY. 

' The acquisition of knowledge, by multiplying the mental resources, 
has a tendency to exalt the character, and in some measure to correct 
and subdue the taste for gross sansuality. The poor man who can 
read, and who possesses a taste for reading, can find entertainment at 
home without being tempted to repair to the public house for that 
purpose. He does not lie prostrate and afloat on the current of inci- 
dents, liable to be carried whithersoever the impulse of appetite may 
direct. The man who has gained a taste for books, will in all likeli- 
hood, become thoughtful ; and when you have given the poor the habit 
of thinking, you have conferred on them a much greater favor than by 
the gift of a large sum of money ; since you have put them in posses- 
sion of the principles of all legitimate prosperity. I am persuaded 
that the extreme profligacy, improvidence, and misery, which are so 
prevalent among the labouring classes in many countries, are chiefly 
to be ascribed to the want of education.' — Rev. Robt. Hall. 



DICTIONARY FOR 1841, TO 18 

Patriot — A candidate for place. 

Politics — Tiie art of getting one. 

Intelligence — A knowledge of knavery. 

Virtue and Vice — Mere subjects of discourse. 

Worth — Dress, power, wealth. 

Wisdom — The art of obtaining all three. 



WHAT IS OUR EDUCATION. 

The following observations were intended for another meridian ; but 
they are so applicable to our situation, that we cannot resist the temp- 
tation of copying them. 

" What is the nature of the education of the humbler classes, which 
Extending in England, and has been so long established in Scotland? 



GO 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



It is of a kind to impart useful, practical knowledge for resource in 
life ; does it communicate to the pupil any light on the important sub- 
ject of his own nature and place in creation ; on the conditions of 
his physical welfare, and his intellectual and moral happiness ? Does 
it, above all, make an attempt to regulate his passions, and train and 
exercise his moral feelings, to prevent his prejudices, suspicions, envy- 
ing, self-conceit, vanity, impracticability, destructiveness, cruelty, 
and sensuality ? Alas ! No. It teaches him to read, write, and 
cipher, and leaves him to pick up all the rest as he may. It forms an 
instructive example of the sedative effects of established habits of 
thinking, that our ancestors and ourselves have so contentedly held 
this to be education, or the shadow of it, for any rank of society. 
Reading, writing, and ciphering, are mere instruments ; when attain- 
ed, as they rarely or never are, after all. by the working class, to a 
reasonable perfection, they leave the pupil exactly where he would 
find himself, were we to put tools into his hands, the use of which, 
however, he must learn as he may. We know well, that he will be 
much more prone to misapply his tools, and to cut himself with them, 
than to use them aright. So it is with his reading ; for, really, any 
writing and accounting of this class, even the most respectable of 
them, scarcely deserve the name, and may be here put out of the ac- 
count. Reading consists in the recognition of printed characters, 
arranged into syllables and words. With this most abstract accom- 
plishment may co-exist unregulated propensities, selfish passions, sen- 
sual appetites, filthy and intemperate habits, profound intellectual 
darkness", and moral debasement ; all adhering to a man as closely af- 
ter, as before, he could read ; and, be it marked, these qualities will 
give their bias to his future voluntary reading, and assuredly degrade 
and vitiate his character ; it will tend to strengthen his prejudices, 
deepen his superstitions, natter his passions, and excite his animal ap- 
petites. Well is all this known to the agitator, the quack and the 
corruptor. They know that the manual laborer can read ; but they 
know, as well, that he is incapable of thinking, or detecting their im- 
positions, if they only flatter his passions. No just views of life have 
ever been given him ; no practical knowledge of his actual position in 
the social system. We are always told, that the majority of criminals 
cannot read, as if the mere faculty of reading would have diminished 
the number of criminals. This is a great delusion. For the reasons 
I have stated, «mere reading might have increased the number of 
criminals ; it would be quite ineffective in diminishing them. But, if 
the investigation had gone the length of ascertaining with which of 
the criminals had an attempt at moral training and useful knowledge 
eve* been made, we should have found that column of the table a blank, 
and something like cause and effect would begin to dawn upon us. It 
is needless to pursue so obvious a matter further." — Simpson on P°P& 
lar Education. * 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



61 



EDUCATION JOURNALS. 

The following publications should be attentively read by every 
teacher, parent,- and friend of education. 

" Massachusetts Common School Journal" published at Boston, by 
Marsh, Capen, Lyon, and Webb, and edited by the Hon. Horace Mann. 
Price $1. a year. 3 vols, have been issued. The editor of this "Journal" 
is the ablest American writer we have on the subject of education. 

" Connecticut Common School Journal" published at Hartford, Ct. 
and edited by the Hon. Henry Barnard — Price 50 cents a year. 3 vols, 
have been published, which contain the most valuable collection of im- 
portant Thoughts, Reports, Publications, and results of experiments, on 
the subject of Common Education, of any publication before this 
country. 1 

" Palmer's Prize Essay" or " The Teacher's Manual " by Marsh, 
Capen, Lyon and Webb, Boston. Price 65 cents — 12 mo, pages 264 — 
This is the best Manual for teachers we have seen. 

" District School Journal " published at Albany, N. Y. and edited by 
Francis Dwight, Esq. — Terms 50 cents per annum. Mr. Dvvight is 
well and extensively known as a ripe scholar, and for his ardent de- 
votion to the cause of common education. 

Nor should we omit to mention in this place the " New York Ameri- 
can " edited by Charles King, Esq. This publication, although it has 
gained, and deserves, the reputation of one of the ablest and most en- 
terprising political newspapers of the day, has rendered, by its original 
articles on the subject of Education, and its readiness to admit into its 
columns, at all times, valuable communications on this subject, an 
invaluable service to the People's Schools. For the improvement of 
Schools and the progress of knowledge we are indebted to this paper. 



THE SCOTCH. 
Said John Knox to the Scotch Parliament of 1560. « Seeing God 
has determined that his Kirk here on earth, shall be taught, not by 
angels, but by men ; and seeing that men are born ignorant of God 
and of Godliness ; and seeing also that he ceaseth to illuminate men 
miraculously, of necessity, it is, that your honors be most careful for 
tl«|virkious education of the youth of this realm. Of necessity, there- 



62 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC- 



fore, we judge it that every Kirk have a school master appointed ; 
such a one at least, as is able to teach Grammar, and the Latin 
tongue." Says Bulwer referring to the time before Knox, " just as a 
curiosity, read the following account of a certain people many years 
ago : * At country weddings, markets, burials, and other the like pub- 
lic occasions, both men and women are to be seen perpetually drunk, 
cursing, blaspheming, and fighting together.' What people is it thus 
described? The Scotch! The moral, sober, orderly Scotch people — 
such as they were in the time of Fletcher of Saltoun, whose words 
these are ! Is this a picture of existing Scotland ? No. Existing 
Scotland is educated. 



GEORGE COMBE'S REMARKS ON EDUCATION IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

American civilization as indicated by individual education. — 
In the United States the development of the mind of the mass of the 
people is accomplished by the following influences ; — 1st, by domestic 
education. 2e%, By district schools. Zdly, By religious instruction. 
4thly, By professional instruction ; and, lastly, By political action. 

1st, By Domestic Education.-, — The object of education in the fa- 
mily circle is to develope and regulate the affections, as well as to in- 
struct the understanding. So far as a stranger can discover by obser- 
vation, or learn by inquiries, the family education in the United States 
is exceedingly various, and depends for its character much more on 
the natural dispositions of the parents, than on any system of instruc- 
tion. In general the parents are in easy circumstances, are happily 
matched, are good natured, active and frugal ; and these qualities sen- 
sibly cultivate similar dispositions in the young ; but there are of course 
numerous exceptions ; and education has not advanced so far among 
the masses as to render domestic training systematic. Every family 
has its own manners, maxims, and modes of treatment. Speaking 
generally, the faculties of the child are allowed free scope in the family 
circle, without sufficient enforcement of self-denial, or of the subordi- 
nation of the lower to the higher powers. The first useful lesson to a 
child is that of self-restraint, or of forgoing a present enjoyment at 
the call of duty, or for the sake of a higher, although more distant, 
good. Many American children appear to be indulged in their appe- 
tites and desires, and to be too little restrained in the manifestation of 
their propensities. Egotism, or the idea that the world is made for 
them, and that other persons must stand aside to allow them scopetfjp 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



63 



a feature not un frequently recognised. The consideration of the man- 
ner in which their sentiments and modes of action, will affect other 
individnals of well regulated and well cultivated minds, is not adequate- 
ly brought home to them, In short, the active manifestation of the 
moral sentiments in refined habits, in pure and elevated desires, and 
in disinterested goodness, is not aimed at systematically as an ob- 
ject in domestic training. I speak of the masses composing the na- 
tion, and not of the children of well educated and refined individuals. 

In intellectual cultivation, domestic education is still more defec- 
tive, because in the masses the parents themselves are very imperfect, 
ly instructed. 

On the whole, therefore, the domestic training and instruction ap- 
pear to me to be imperfect, viewed in relation to the objects of en- 
larging the mind's sphere of conferring on it the power of self-re- 
straint, and also the ability to discover and successfully to pursue its 
own permanent welfare. 

2dly, Of Common School Education. — From the various remarks 
which have already been presented in these volumes, the reader will be 
prepared to draw the inference that, viewed in relation to the three ob- 
jects before mentioned, the common school education in the United 
States is also imperfect ; I should say very imperfect. The things 
taught (chiefly reading, writing, and aritmetic,) are not in themselves 
education. If sedulously and wisely applied, they may enable the in- 
dividual to obtain knowledge ; but the common schools stop short of 
supplying it. They even communicate very imperfectly the art of 
acquiring it ; for some of the teachers are themselves ill qualified ; their 
modes of teaching are defective, and the attendance of the children at 
school is brief and irregular. The addition of a library to each school 
district was dictated by a perception of the magnitude and importance 
of the deficiency in this department. It appears to me that besides 
great improvements in existing schools, still higher seminaries are 
wanted, in which the elements of natural, moral, and political science, 
with their applications to the purposes of individual and social enjoy- 
ment, may be taught to the whole people. 



LIKE TEACHER, LIKE SCHOOL. 
Mal-information is worse than no information — for better that there 
should be no education going on, than education under the guidance 
of ignorance and immorality. Hunger is better than poisoned food. 
Not to be taught is only the absence of good — to be mistaught is posi- 
tive evil. It is self-delusion, and most miserable weakness to talk of 
^ication from suck educators. Before there can be teaching there 



64 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



must be schools for teachers. We must educate educators, before wq 
can expect an education. 



THE THIRST BEFORE THE DRINK. 

Teachers of children should create the thirst and then offer the drink 
— produce and sharpen the appetite, and then merely say where the 
food can be found. A hungry child will find the cub-board, and a de- 
sire for knowledge will find its sources. 

Teachers must study the springs of action in the human mind, and 
the laws of mental growth, and the various modes of stimulating fac- 
ulties to activity. 



INHUMAN AND IMPOLITIC. 

In the German "Pedagogic Magazine," for 1888, we are told that 
il there died lately in Sivabia, a schoolmaster, who, for fifty-one years, had 
superintended an institution with old-fashioned severity. From an av- 
erage inferred from recorded observations, one of the ushers calculated, 
that in the course of his exertions, he had given 911,500 canings, 
124,000 floggings, 209,000 custodes, 136,000 tips with the ruler, 10,200 
boxes on the ear, and 22,700 tasks to get by heart. It was further 
calculated, that he had made 700 boys stand on peas, 600 kneel on a 
sharp edge of wood, 5,000 wear the fool's cap, and 1,708 hold the rod" 
— amounting in all to 1,421,208 punishments, which, allowing five 
days for every week, would average above a hundred punishments 
every day. There is something extremely revolting in the idea of such 
a series of punishments being connected with learning ; and we may 
justly infer, that, however much classical learning may have been ad- 
vanced, very little useful knowledge or moral principle was communi- 
cated in that seminary. For, a system of moral and intellectual in- 
struction, calculated to allure the minds of the young, is altogether in- 
compatible with such Gothic rudeness and severity. 

Corporal punishments have generally a hardening effect on the minds 
both of young and old. A blacksmith brought up his son, to whom 
he was very severe, to his own trade. The urchin was, nevertheless, 
an audacious dog. One day the old vulcan was attempting to harden 
a cold chisel which he had made of foreign steel, but could not suc- 
ceed. " Horsewhip it, father," exclaimed the youth, " if that will not 
harden it, nothing will." » 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



65 



NECESSITY FOR IMPROVEMENT. 
Let it not be said that what is taught in the neglected common 
Schools is sufficient. If it be sound policy to keep the laboring peo- 
ple in ignorance, let education of every kind be given up ; for an edu- 
cation that stops short at the first rudiments, is more dangerous and 
far more to be feared, than the most profound ignorance. A man who 
is able to read, and no more, may read books that will corrupt his 
morals, or excite him on to acts of violence. For want of sufficient 
knowledge to be able to reflect upon and justly appreciate what he has 
read, he is liable to be misled and carried away by mere external im- 
pulses, designing agitators, or reckless, conscienceless, demoralizers. 
We repeat it ; if we go so far as to enable the industrious classes to 
read, we ought to give them, at the same time, the means of under- 
standing and setting a just value on what they read. 



THE THINKING EXERCISE. 

As soon as the child can form and join his letters, let him commence 
the practice of composition, and follow it up steadily as long as he re- 
mains in school. Few are aware how improvable is the faculty of ex- 
pressing thoughts upon paper. The gigantic increase of the muscles 
in a black smith's arm, from his wielding the hammer so frequently ; the 
proverbial strength of the memory, by exercise ; or the miraculous 
sleight which the juggler acquires, by practice, with his cup and balls ; 
is not more certain, than that he, who daily habituates himself to writ- 
ing down his ideas with what ease, accuracy, and elegance, he can, 
will find his improvement advance, with hardly any assignable limit. 
Nor will his style, only, improve. It is a hackneyed truth, that, "in 
learning to write with accuracy and precision, we learn to think with 
accuracy and precision." Besides this, the store of thought is, in a 
twofold way, enlarged. By the action of the mind, in turning over 
analyzing and comparing, its ideas, they are incalculably multiplied. 
And the researches, prompted by the desire to write understandingly 
upon each subject, are constantly widening and deepening the bounds 
of knowledge. Thus, whether a person wishes to enrich and invigo- 
rate his own mind, or to act with power on the minds of others, we say 
to him, Write ! 

Elocution and composition have an intimate connexion and mutual 
bearing on each other. It has been said, that " reading makes a full 
man ; speaking, a ready man ; and writing, an exact man." All are 
J^fcessary to constitute the well-educated man. 



66 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



Instruction and exercise in the art of composition ought to have a 
prominent place in all our primary schools. Collecting and arranging 
their ideas would teach the scholars to think* It would lead them to think 
patiently and correctly ; and it would confine the action of the mind 
to one subject. Thus, the exercise would correct the greatest of all 
evils in our system of education, viz* the want of clear, connected 
thought. 

It would do more ; it would show the scholar how much he knew of 
the subject which he has been studying. Scholars are generally very 
much deceived respecting the real amount of their knowledge. They 
think they know much more than they actually do. After they have 
read a book through, or finished a study, a few general ideas or promi- 
nent outlines may be remembered, and from these the scholar supposes 
he has mastered the whole. But when he is required to communicate 
his knowledge, he finds that he has in reality but very little to say ; 
and he says this little in a very awkward, unintelligible manner. When 
the book is laid aside, he finds, that he is unable to go alone ; and, as 
respects intelligence for practical purposes, he is no more improved 
than he was before he read the book. But if scholars were in the habit 
of composing, they would think when they read; and, by writing their 
thoughts, they would know how much they have learned by reading. 
Practice in composition would give scholars the power of expressing 
themselves with ease and elegance* We seldom find one, even among 
the most learned, who possesses this faculty ; and the reason is, they 
have not been in the habit of arranging their knowledge, and clothing 
it with expressive language. Let all, then, who would learn to think, 
and who wish to ascertain how much they really know, and to have the 
power of imparting knowledge to others, pay close attention to the ex- 
ercises in composition. To write a composition is not so difficult a 
thing as scholars imagine. He who can talk, can write ; and if he 
can talk correctly, he can write correctly. Composition is nothing 
more than conversation put on paper. And yet, I have seen lads who 
would continue a narrative, or a debating speech for a half hour or 
more, and still not be able in the same time to put three sentences upon 
paper. If they had been taught what composition is, and had practised 
it, writing would be as easy as speaking. There is no mystery in 
composition ; there is nothing in it to torture the mind ; it is as easy, 
and as simple as conversation. 



TO CHILDREN. 
L Have I told any lies to-day f 

2. Have I spoken the exact truth, neither more nor less ? 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



67 



3. Have I so spoken, as always to convey the truth to others ; or 
so as to mislead them, although my words were really true ? Is not 
I this the same as telling a lie ? 

' 4. Have I been honest, taking nothing but what was really my own ? 

5. Have I used the property of my parents and others, so as not un- 
necessarily to injure it ? 

6. Have I been obedient to my parents ? 

7. Have I acted as if I loved them ? 

8. Have I acted towards my brothers and sisters as if I loved 
them ? 

9. Do I love all my friends ? 

10. Have I been grateful for every mark of kindness? 

11. Have I been faithful to my friends, by taking their part, when 
injured, either by word or deed ? 

12. Have I treated all my superiors in age and station with proper 
respect ? 

13. Have I allowed myself to show, or even to feel anger or re- 
venge ? 

14. Have I felt fretful or sullen ? 

15. Have I been polite to all, — acquaintance and friends* as well as 
strangers ? 

16. Have I been uniformly mild in my manners, and used no rough- 
ness of speech ? 

17. Have I been pleased to see others happy, and sorry to see others 
suffer, or to see them act amiss ? 

18. In talking or thinking of others, have I looked more at their fol- 
lies or faults, than at their goodness ? 

19. When I have seen others injured, have I felt for thern, and taken 
their part? 

20. Have I been liberal, and ready to share with my friends and 
playmates ? 

21. Have I been ready to forgive those who have injured me? 

22. Have I been careful not to injure the property of others? 

23. Have I been cruel to animals ? 

24. Have I been ashamed or afraid to do what was right ? 

25. Have I acted right, even when I felt a wish to do wrong ? 
jj^ve I striven to gain a command over myself? 



68 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



26. Have I been very careful to do the right, and avoid the wrong ? 

27. Have I been anxious to learn what was good or useful ? 

28. Have I idled away my time, when I ought to have been busy ? 

29. Have I been impatient, or have I been persevering in my studies 
or work ? 

30. Have I been careful, or wasteful, of my food, clothing, or 
books ? 

31. Have I been greedy, or ate or drunk more than was proper ? 

32. Have I been patient in pain, sickness, or trouble of any kind ? 

33. Have I been cheerful, or have I allowed myself to imagine af- 
fairs to be worse than they really were 1 

34. Have I allowed myself to think " how good I am," or have I 
looked rather to my faults, and felt sorry they were still so many ? 

35. Have I been neither bashful nor affected ? 

36. Have I hept my dress, books, and bedroom, neat and clean ? 

37. Have I put my books, clothes, and tools, in their proper places ? 

38. Have I been anxious for improvement, both in my conduct and 
in my studies ? 

39. Do I regard my Maker with reverence and awe ? 

40. Do I feel very grateful for His uniform kindness ? 

41. Have 1 a strong feeling of love towards Him ? 

42. Do I feel a perfect confidence in His goodness and care ? 

43. Do I feel completely resigned to His will, assured that He al- 
ways acts for the best, though I may not understand it ? 

44. Is my sorrow for doing wrong of such a nature, as to lead me to 
do right, or does it produce no change in conduct and disposition ? 

Palmer's Teacher's Manual. 



CONNECTICUT. 
In Connecticut the expense of Schools is defrayed in three ways : 
h From the interest of the School Fund which was created in 1795 by 
the sale of Lands in Ohio called the Connecticut Reserve. In 1839 
this fund amounted to $2,028,531 ; the interest of this sum is $104,900, 
which is distributed among the districts in proportion to the number of 
scholars. 2. By half the income of what is called the Town Deposit 
Fund, the principal of which is $764,670 : a portion of the other (J^f 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



may be appropriated to the same object. In some of the towns there 
are local funds which produce in all about $7,000 annually. 3. If the 
income of the State and local funds are insufficient to defray the ex- 
pense of the schools, deficit is made up by a tax. In 1839 $10,000 
were raised in this way. No other condition is attached to the recep- 
tion of a portion of the fund than that it shall be expended for instruc- 
tion in Schools kept according to law, and it is distributed in propor- 
tion to the number of a suitable age to attend the Schools. In 1839 
no less than 12,000 children in Connecticut were educated in private 
schools at an expense of $100,000. 



MAINE. 

In Maine the Common Schools are supported partly from a School 
Fund and partly by a direct tax. The fund is derived from an annual 
tax upon banks, which in 183S amounted to $149,415, and in many 
instances from the local funds of the several towns. Those towns are 
entitled to a share of the fund which make their annual returns to the 
Secretary of State of the number of persons in the town between four 
and twenty-one, of the number that attend school and of the amount of 
money raised by tax or otherwise and expended for the benefit of 
schools. Beside this each town is required to expend for the mainte- 
nance of schools a sum of money not less than 40 cents for each in- 
habitant the town contains : if any fail, it is liable to a fine not more 
than four times nor less than twice the amount of the deficiency. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
In New Hampshire the interest of a State Literary Fund of $64,000, 
and $19,900 derived from a tax on banks are appropriated to the sup- 
port of schools. Beside this, about $90,000 is annually raised by a di- 
rect tax for the same object. The number of children between four 
and sixteen is about 75,000. The general features of the Common 
School system are the same as in the other New-England States. 



70 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



VERMONT. 

In Vermont in 1835 the Legislature passed an act imposing a tax upon 
the Banks in the State and appropriating the money thus received togeth- 
er with the income from 4 pedlars' licenses' to the creation of a fund for 
the use of Common Schools ; in 1836 the State's portion of the surplus 
revenue was appropriated to the same object. The number of chil- 
dren in the State between four and eighteen is 106,000, and the num- 
ber of District Schools 2,300. The School tax in the year 1837 was 
$61,803 ; the sums raised voluntarily by the towns and Districts 
amounted to $81,000. The aggregate annual expense for the Schools 
is about $292,730. 



RHODE ISLAND. 

In Rhode Island in 1838 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 an- 
nually for the support of Public Schools to be divided among the seve- 
ral towns in proportion to the population, provided each town should 
raise by annual tax double its share. This law has produced a great 
increase in the number of Districts ; there are now about 700 district 
schools in this State. 



How often has a mother said : " 1 shall be so glad when school com- 
mences again — I can do nothing with my children at home — they 
worry my very life out of me daily." 

The school is regarded as a place of confinement till the children 
are able to work ; a prison for those who cannot be governed at 
home. 



Crates, the ancient philosopher, was wont to say that if he could 
get up to the highest place in the city he would make this proclama- 
tion : "What mean you, fellow-citizens, to be so anxious after wealth, 
but so indifferent to your children's education ? It is like being so- 
licitous about the shoe, but neglecting entirely the foot that is to 
wear it." # 



THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 



71 



THE DIGNITY OF TEACHING. 

To educate a child perfectly, requires profounder thought, greater 
wisdom, than to govern a state ; and for this plain reason, that the in- 
terests and wants of the latter are more superficial, coarser, and more 
obvious, than the spiritual capacities, the growth of thought and feel- 
ing, and the subtle lsi^vs of the mind, which must all be studied and 
comprehended, before the work of education can be thoroughly per- 
formed ; and yet to all conditions this greatest work on earth is equally 
committed by God. What plainer proof do we need that a higher cul- 
ture, than has yet been dreamt of, is needed by our whole race. The 
country stands in need of able, accomplished, quickening teachers of 
the whole rising generation. The present poor remuneration of in- 
structors is a dark omen, and the only real obstacle which the cause 
of education has to contend with. We need for our schools gifted men 
and women, worthy, by their intelligence and their moral power, to be 
entrusted with a nation's youth ; and to gain these we must pay them 
liberally, as well as afford other proofs of the consideration in which 
we hold them. In the present state of the country, when so many 
paths of wealth and promotion are opened, superior men cannot be won 
to an office so responsible and laborious as that of teaching, without 
stronger inducements than are now offered, except in some of our large 
cities. The office of instructer ought to rank and be recompensed as 
one of the most honorable in society. 



M. Victor Cousin, in his report upon the Prussian system, remarks 
that " the best plans of instruction cannot be executed, except by the 
instrumentality of good teachers ; and the State has done nothing for 
popular education, if it does not watch that those who devote them- 
selves to teaching be well prepared ; then suitably placed, encouraged 
and guided in the duty of continued self-improvement ; and lastly, pro- 
moted and rewarded in proportion to their advancement, or punished 
according to their faults." 



12r • f . • THE COMMON SCHOOL ALMANAC. 

f ♦ • ■ 

ALWAYS TEACH SOMETHING, AND BUT ONE THING 
AT A TIME. 

' « Children who have the habit of listening to words without under- 
standing them, yawn and writhe with manifest symptoms of disgust, 
whenever they are compelled to hear sounds which convey no. ideas to 
their minds. All supernumerary words should be voided in cultivating 
the power of attention. v 

"A few years ago, a gentleman brought two Esquimaux to London. 
He wished to amuse, and at the same time to astcSiish them, with. the 
magnificence of the metropolis. For this purpose, after having equip- 
ped them like English gentlemen, he took them out one morning, to 
walk through the streets of London. They walked for several hours 
in silence ; they expressed neither pleasure nor admiration at any thing 
they saw. When their walk was ended, they appeared uncommonly 
melancholy and stupified. As soon as they got home, they sat down, 
with their elbows upon their knees, and hid their faces between their 
hands. The only words they could be brought to utter were : 4 Too 
much smoke — too much noise — too much houses — too much men — too 
much every thing.'— Maria Edgeworth. 

This anecdote illustrates what we have often endeavoured to impress 
upon all : i( That one thing well understood, is an excellent starting 
point for every thing else." And it should be remembered by all teach- 
ers of youth, that " the quickest way to fill a small necked bottle, is, to 
drop in a little at a time" 



SELF EDUCATION. 
Why are not the people their own instructors ? Why are not more 
of the young men of the country, now under the "sublime process" 
of self education ? The reason is, the neglected elementary schools 
merely teach the children to say their letters and hate knowledge alL 
the rest of their lives. The early education is so defective that the 
young man has neither the ability nor desire to mount higher. Yet all 
school education is valuable, qtily so far as it has prepared us to edu- 
cate ourselves. '.Man's grea\ object on ear&i is^ education ; and the 
office of the Instructor, is simply, to prepare him to enter on his 
course, with ease and certainty of success. 

S. W. Benedict, printer, 128 Fulton street* ^